KindofStephen https://kindofstephen.com A cosmetic chemist's blog on the latest skin care and cosmetic research, ingredients, and beauty news Thu, 24 May 2018 15:36:01 +0000 en-CA hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.9.6 https://i1.wp.com/kindofstephen.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/cropped-profile-2.jpg?fit=32%2C32&ssl=1 KindofStephen https://kindofstephen.com 32 32 114122149 Skin penetration of Ascorbic Acid https://kindofstephen.com/skin-penetration-of-ascorbic-acid/ Thu, 24 May 2018 12:45:44 +0000 https://kindofstephen.com/?p=2584 Today I wanted to look at a research paper primarily led by Dr. Sheldon R. Pinnell. He is one of the founders of Skinceuticals and contributed much of the early research on the use of Vitamin C as ascorbic acid on skin. He and his group also discovered the synergistic effect of Vitamin C, Vitamin […]

"Skin penetration of Ascorbic Acid" on KindofStephen.

]]>
Today I wanted to look at a research paper primarily led by Dr. Sheldon R. Pinnell. He is one of the founders of Skinceuticals and contributed much of the early research on the use of Vitamin C as ascorbic acid on skin. He and his group also discovered the synergistic effect of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Ferulic acid – which is commonly used in many products on the market today.

The data from this paper is often quoted in marketing material for Vitamin C serums, but one extremely important piece of information is often left out – the data was collected from pigs, white Yorkshire pigs to be exact.

Many people also have ethical concerns when it comes to the use of animals in cosmetic research. Synthetic and lab grown human skin equivalents are being researched and tested which will one day replace the use of animal as well as human testing in cosmetics.

It should be clear that human skin and pig skin are not the same, but they do have similar properties which is why it is often used in experiments. However, one should never assume that data from a pig can be assumed to be the same for a human. The movement and deposition of chemicals often differs between human and pig skin.

From my searches, I haven’t been able to find similar research performed on humans. This paper in particular has led to some of the often quoted “rules” about ascorbic acid.

“Ascorbic acid must have a pH below 3.5 for effective penetration.”

Pinnell and his group tested a 15% ascorbic acid solution adjusted to different pHs ranging from 2 to 5. The 15% ascorbic acid solutions also contained 2% zinc sulfate, 0.5% bioflavonoids, 1% hyaluronic acid, and 0.1% citrate.

While the control situation wasn’t described it’s likely either the vehicle (product without the ascorbic acid) or a water solution was applied to the skin. The control measurement shows that there is some inherent levels of ascorbic acid already present in the skin from the diet.

The test solutions were applied to the pig skin using a Hill Top Chamber. A Hill Top Chamber is a small and round disk which is placed on the surface of the skin, the product is placed in the chamber or a piece of fabric is soaked in the testing material, and the entire chamber is then sealed. This prevents loss of product from evaporation and is a common method of performing occlusive test patches.

The ascorbic acid solutions at pH 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 5.0 were performed on three pigs, however the control, pH 2, and 4.5 were only performed on two pigs.

The Hill Top Chamber was soaked with 0.2 mL of the ascorbic acid solution then sealed for 24 hours. After this period of occlusion, the skin washed then stripped of the stratum corneum and then small pieces of the skin was removed and tested for ascorbic acid content.

As you can see from the data, the amount of ascorbic acid found in the skin was much higher in ascorbic acid solutions at pH 3.5, 3.0, 2.5, and 2.0. The researchers theorize that it is due to the pKa of ascorbic acid which is 4.2. When the pH of a solution containing ascorbic acid is lower than its pKa more of the ascorbic acid will be protonated. Protonated ascorbic acid is neutrally charged which may allow it to enter the skin more easily.

It’s important to notice the error bars on the amount of ascorbic acid absorbed at pH 2.0. There is considerable deviation from the mean in the results even though it was only tested on 2 subjects. More test subjects would provide a clearer idea of how much ascorbic acid would penetrate at pH 2 on an average population of pigs.

Statistical differences also weren’t calculated between the data points, for example it’s difficult to tell from the way that the data is presented if there is a change in ascorbic acid content between the control, pH 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0 – even if they look different on the graph. Likewise, it’s difficult to tell if there is an increase in ascorbic acid penetration between pH 3.0 and pH 2.5 – despite the trend with pH 2.0 pushing you towards that inference. It’s likely that there is a statistically significant difference between absorption between pH 3.5 and 3.0, but a larger study would provide us  with more confident answers.

So based on this data, many further studies and brands have assumed that a pH below 3.5 results in considerable more skin penetration of ascorbic acid on humans – despite these results being performed on pigs, and relative low strength of the study. If the reason why ascorbic acid is more easily absorbed into the skin is due to the pKa then this would likely hold true for humans as well.

This assumption is often presented as fact, which is misleading. It also doesn’t take into account other factors present in a cosmetic product, such as penetration enhancers. Encapsulation, surfactants, and solvents could increase (or decrease) the amount of ascorbic acid absorbed into the skin regardless of the product’s pH.

In this experiment, the stratum corneum was removed before measurements of ascorbic acid to test for deep penetration of ascorbic acid. It’s possible that some of the benefits conferred by topical application of ascorbic acid aren’t facilitated by deep penetration, the antioxidant and photoprotective effect of ascorbic acid may still occur when it is present in or on the stratum corneum. Other benefits like reduction of hyperpigmentation and an increase in collagen production are likely dependent on penetration past the stratum corneum.

Unfortunately I haven’t been able to find further studies on humans or otherwise to provide answers to these questions.

“Ascorbic acid serums must be at least 10% to be effective”

After the first experiment of testing 15% ascorbic acid with different pHs, Pinnell and his group tested how concentration of ascorbic acid affects skin penetration. This time they tested 7 ascorbic acid solutions with varying concentrations all at pH 3.2. The concentrations of the rest of the formulation are assumed to be the same as the previous experiment.

The ascorbic acid solutions were applied in the same manner, with a Hill Top Chamber for 24 hours, followed by washing, stripping, and then assessment.

The maximum amount of ascorbic acid penetration was seen when 20% ascorbic acid at pH 3.2 was used.

All concentrations were tested on 3 pigs, and there is quite a bit of deviation from mean between absorption among the 3 pigs tested. This makes it difficult to assess the true difference in absorption between a 10% and 15% ascorbic acid, and a 15% and 20% ascorbic acid.

Absorption also seemed to peak at 20%, the 25% ascorbic acid solution penetrated less than the 20%, and the 30% even less so. The researchers did not explore or hypothesize on why this occured, and I’ve been unable to find an answer in any later research as well.

While 20% ascorbic acid certainly led to the greatest increase in levels of ascorbic acid, the 5% solution still increased ascorbic acid levels in the pig skin by about 6 fold.

It’s very important to remember that the way that this experiment was performed does not mimic the way that ascorbic acid solutions are often applied to the skin. With the Hill Top Chamber, the solvent (in this case water) is not allowed to evaporate – whereas when we apply it to the skin the solvent evaporates. What this means is that the kinetics of ascorbic acid penetration into the skin may not be the same.

For example, if half of the solvent of a 10% ascorbic acid solution evaporates, it is equivalent to a 20% ascorbic acid solution – the total amount of ascorbic acid by mass is the same, but the concentration has changed. This may mean that we could see a different maximum absorption by concentration in an experiment where the solvent was allowed to evaporate the way that it is often applied.

Human clinical trials with “low” ascorbic acid concentrations, 3% ascorbic acid cream and a 5% ascorbic acid cream, were able to show statistically significant improvements on measurements of photodamage and photoageing in their study groups.

Another thing many people hold on to is the concept that their products must be working at “maximum efficiency”, unfortunately this is unrealistic and there’s going to be variations in the amount of ascorbic acid that penetrates your skin with each application – even the amount that you apply to your skin will vary each time. This is why good cosmetic studies are performed over a longer period of time.

For example, if we look at the 20% concentration, the pig skin concentration of ascorbic acid increased to about 1100 pmol of ascorbic acid per mg of pig skin, which is about 0.19 μg ascorbic acid per mg of pig skin. 1.0 mg of a 20% ascorbic acid (w/w) contains about 1135589.37 pmol of ascorbic acid, if that helps give you a sense of the “efficiency”. In these experiments, 200 μL or 0.2 mL solution was used in total for each application, which contains about 227117874.1767 pmol of ascorbic acid if we assume density of the solution (w/w) is 1.

Higher concentrations of ascorbic acid may lead to more irritation (measured by skin redness or erythema), but I haven’t found any studies that looked at this specifically.

I’m going to end this post here, to be continued next week, where we’ll look at the data behind Vitamin C’s “reservoir” effect.

Source: Pinnell, S. R., Yang, H. , Omar, M. , Riviere, N. M., DeBuys, H. V., Walker, L. C., Wang, Y. and Levine, M. (2001), Topical L‐Ascorbic Acid: Percutaneous Absorption Studies. Dermatologic Surgery, 27: 137-142. DOI: 10.1046/j.1524-4725.2001.00264.x

"Skin penetration of Ascorbic Acid" on KindofStephen.

]]>
2584
#BeautyRecap: May 15th, 2018 https://kindofstephen.com/beautyrecap-may-15th-2018/ Tue, 15 May 2018 12:45:15 +0000 https://kindofstephen.com/?p=2692 Research and Technology Emollient bath additives for the treatment of childhood eczema (BATHE): Multicentre pragmatic parallel group randomised controlled trial of clinical and cost effectiveness BMJ After decades without any developments, new drugs may revolutionize the treatment of atopic dermatitis Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas Microscopy with ultraviolet surface excitation (MUSE): A novel approach to real ‐time inexpensive […]

"#BeautyRecap: May 15th, 2018" on KindofStephen.

]]>
Research and Technology

Emollient bath additives for the treatment of childhood eczema (BATHE): Multicentre pragmatic parallel group randomised controlled trial of clinical and cost effectiveness
BMJ

After decades without any developments, new drugs may revolutionize the treatment of atopic dermatitis
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas

Microscopy with ultraviolet surface excitation (MUSE): A novel approach to real ‐time inexpensive slide‐free dermatopathology
Journal of Cutaneous Pathology

Effectiveness and safety of hyaluronic acid gel with lidocaine for the treatment of nasolabial folds: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim. leaves extract ameliorates DNCB-induced atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in NC/Nga mice
Phytomedicine

Acne scarring management: Systematic review and evaluation of the evidence
American Journal of Clinical Dermatology

Solvent-extracted wool wax: Thermotropic properties and skin efficacy
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology

Haldi ceremony – Historical use of turmeric
JAMA

Speaking with your hands – The history of the manicure
JAMA

Prevalence of sun protection use and sunburn and association of demographic and behaviorial characteristics with sunburn among US adults
JAMA

Oil from the fruits of Pterodon emarginatus Vog.: A traditional anti-inflammatory. Study combining in vivo and in silico
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

Microarray based comparative genome-wide microRNA expression profiling of skin during aging in Chinese populations
JID

Antiseptic agents elicit short-term, personalized and body site-specific shifts in resident skin bacterial communities
JID

Elastase digestion of fibronectin releases an epiviosamine peptide with fibroblast growth and survival activity
JID

The challenges of big data in dermatology
JAAD

Transforming acne care by pediatricians: An interventional cohort study
JAAD

Restoring effects of natural antI-oxidant quercetin on cellular senescent human dermal fibroblasts
The American Journal of Chinese Medicine

Humidity-regulated CLCA2 protects the epidermis from hyperosmotic stress
Science Translational Medicine

Benzoyl peroxide gel stains synthetic fabrics less than cotton
JAAD

Enhancement of cutaneous wound healing by Dsg2 augmentation of uPAR secretion
JID

The early effect of microdermabrasion on hydration and sebum level
Skin Research and Technology

Degradation of hyaluronic acid fillers using hyaluronidase in an in vivo model
Journal of Drugs in Dermatology

Chlorine dioxide complex cleanser: A new agent with rapid efficacy for keratosis pilaris
Journal of Drugs in Dermatology

Efficacy of a shower cream and a lotion with skin-identical lipids in healthy subjects with atopic dry skin
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

Acne scarring management: Systematic review and evaluation of the evidence
American Journal of Clinical Dermatology

Stratum corneum substantivity: drug development implications
Archives of Dermatological Research

Daily aspirin linked to melanoma risk in men
The Pharmaceutical Journal

Proanthocyanidins against oxidative stress: From molecular mechanisms to clinical applications
Biomed Res

Improvement of dermal parameters in aged skin after oral use of a nutrient supplement
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology

"#BeautyRecap: May 15th, 2018" on KindofStephen.

]]>
2692
Should you avoid sunscreens with Avobenzone? https://kindofstephen.com/should-you-avoid-sunscreens-with-avobenzone/ Thu, 10 May 2018 12:45:16 +0000 https://kindofstephen.com/?p=2642 I’ve received quite a few questions about the organic sunscreen chemical Avobenzone over the years and I wanted to shed some light on one of the most common concerns – its photodegradation in UV. These concerns are usually raised by websites that say things like, “Avobenzone degrades in the sun, resulting in the release of free […]

"Should you avoid sunscreens with Avobenzone?" on KindofStephen.

]]>
I’ve received quite a few questions about the organic sunscreen chemical Avobenzone over the years and I wanted to shed some light on one of the most common concerns – its photodegradation in UV. These concerns are usually raised by websites that say things like, “Avobenzone degrades in the sun, resulting in the release of free radicals that may actually increase the risk for cancer.”

What these quotes often leave out is the context, which is important in understanding why Avobenzone is so commonly used in sunscreens and why it is effective.

Avobenzone or butyl methoxydibenzoyl methane is an organic sunscreen that absorbs in the UVA region and has global approval. Among the sunscreen chemicals available in the US it is the strongest and most effective UVA absorber. Avobenzone exists in two chemical forms when in solution, the enol form and the diketo (or keto) form.

When exposed to UV light some Avobenzone in the enol form can be changed into the keto form – however this is slowly reversed once Avobenzone is removed from UV light.

In its keto form Avobenzone is susceptible to photodegradation from UV light. The energy from UV light causes structural changes in the Avobenzone that can lead to breakdown products. In many cases, those breakdown products no longer effectively absorb UVA and UVB (some of them will absorb UVC). Some of these breakdown products are also thought to be irritants. The other concern is that some singlet oxygen can also be formed – a reactive oxygen species which can damage DNA and cells.

The above only relates to Avobenzone on its own though, the material that Avobenzone is dissolved into and other chemicals in the formula can change how easily Avobenzone photodegrades. Other modifications like encapsulating Avobenzone have also been tested, though the benefit is often reduced contact between Avobenzone and the skin – not photostability.

Photostabilizers generally work by absorbing energy from the Avobenzone before it becomes unstable and breaks and down. Effective photostabilizers will then be able to take this energy and dissipate it in safer forms, most often heat.

A company that produces Avobenzone, DSM Nutritional Products, performed a study testing different photostabilizers and their effect on Avobenzone’s phostability. The most commonly used and known photostabilizer of Avobenzone is the organic sunscreen chemical Octocrylene, but there are other photostabilizers that don’t act as sunscreens such as Polyester-8 and Polysilicone-15.

To perform the test, 4% Avobenzone and different photostabilizers were dissolved into a mixture of 70% ethanol, 15% caprylic/capric triglyceride, and 15% C12-15 alkyl benzoate. The solutions were placed on glass slides at a density of 2 mg/cm2 then exposed to 25 MED (Minimal Erythemal Dose, 1 MED defined by the US FDA as 200 Joules/Meter2) units of UV light. After exposure, the amount of Avobenzone remaining was determined.

What the researchers found was that the combination of 4% Avobenzone and 3-5% Octocrylene maintained 90% of the Avobenzone after 25 MEDs of UV light. Based on this, they tested different combinations of Octocrylene and other photostabilizers to see how well they stabilized Avobenzone.

They found that 3.6% Octocrylene with 4% Bis Ethylhexyloxyphenyl Methoxyphenol Triazine or 4% 4-Methylbenzylidene Camphor were able to completely stabilize the Avobenzone after 25 MED of UV.

There’s currently no global standard on photostability, different regions have their own standards. In the US as part of the Broad Spectrum test, sunscreens are pre-irradiated with 4 MED before testing.

Just like how some chemicals can increase the photostability of Avobenzone, others like Octinoxate (Octyl Methoxycinnamate) are known to speed up the photodegradation of Avobenzone. This paper is often misquoted to include Oxybenzone (2-Hydroxy-4-Methoxybenzophenone), often mischaracterized as not photostable, as a chemical that increases the photodegradation of Avobenzone, but it was included as an internal standard to allow comparison between samples – as it did not photodegrade in the experiment.

What matters when it comes to the protection offered by a sunscreen are the values and ratings determined from standardized tests like SPF, PPD, Broad Spectrum, etc and not the appearance of an ingredient on the INCI.

Basing assumptions on INCI is dangerous, as the only way to truly know is to test the products. An experiment on 6 different commercial sunscreens on their photostability highlights this. 4/6 of the organic sunscreens tested exhibited a decrease in photoprotection after UV exposure. Of the two photostable organic sunscreens one contained a combination of Avobenzone and 4-Methylbenzylidene Camphor and the other Octocrylene, Avobenzone, Mexoryl SX, and Titanium Dioxide. The one inorganic sunscreen tested was shown to be photostable after UV exposure.

Keep in mind, this study tested commercial sunscreens available in 2006, where photostability was a relatively newer concern for sunscreens and standards had not yet been defined. It was around this time that Neutrogena began marketing its Helioplex patent, a photostable combination of Avobenzone, Diethylhexyl 2,6-Naphthalate, and Oxybenzone. The Helioplex US patent was granted in 2002 and other patents for increasing photostability of Avobenzone are present as early as 1999, when the US FDA finalized the use of Avobenzone in sunscreens.

While we still do not have a global standard for photostability, the options for and knowledge to stabilize sunscreens has grown considerably. It also still very important to reapply your sunscreen throughout UV exposure, this compensates for any protection lost through photodegradation as well as physical changes in the film of sunscreen on the skin.

Source: C. Mendrok-Edinger, K. Smith, A Janssen, J. Vollhardt. The Quest for Avobenzone Stabilizers and Sunscreen Photostability, Cosmetics and Toiletries, http://www.cosmeticsandtoiletries.com/formulating/category/suncare/premium-the-quest-for-avobenzone-stabilizers-and-sunscreen-photostability-214405251.html

"Should you avoid sunscreens with Avobenzone?" on KindofStephen.

]]>
2642
#BeautyRecap: May 8th, 2018 https://kindofstephen.com/beautyrecap-may-8th-2018/ https://kindofstephen.com/beautyrecap-may-8th-2018/#respond Tue, 08 May 2018 12:45:34 +0000 https://kindofstephen.com/?p=2672 Products and Reviews Hot Topic and Her Universe launch Star Wars beauty collection Allure.com A look at the Karl Lagerfeld and Model Co makeup collaboration HarpersBazaar.com Too Faced launching a ’90s themed anniversary lipstick collection TeenVogue.com, Allure.com Rupaul and Mally Beauty collaborating on a beauty capsule collection TeenVogue.com Innisfree launches birthstone setting powder collection Allure.com […]

"#BeautyRecap: May 8th, 2018" on KindofStephen.

]]>
Products and Reviews

Hot Topic and Her Universe launch Star Wars beauty collection
Allure.com

A look at the Karl Lagerfeld and Model Co makeup collaboration
HarpersBazaar.com

Too Faced launching a ’90s themed anniversary lipstick collection
TeenVogue.com, Allure.com

Rupaul and Mally Beauty collaborating on a beauty capsule collection
TeenVogue.com

Innisfree launches birthstone setting powder collection
Allure.com

A review of the La Prairie White Caviar Creme Extraordinaire
Allure.com

Urban Decay to launch Lightbeam palette at Macy’s
Allure.com

A look at the best-selling face sunscreens on Amazon
Allure.com

21 self-tanners recommended by Allure
Allure.com

Corporate

Birchbox has sold majority ownership to one of its hedge fund investors after sale talks with QVC fell through
Recode.net

The Hut Group acquires Eyeko
THG.com

L’Oréal bets on demand for South Korean beauty products with the purchase of cosmetics firm Nanda
SCMP.com

How Ulta Beauty evolved its merchandising strategy to compete in a crowded market
DigiDay.com

LG Household buys Avon Japan
Nikkei.com

Skincare and Beauty

European Parliament votes to support a push towards a global animal testing ban
TheParliamentMagazine.eu

“Before you judge Asian beauty standards, try to understand them”
TeenVogue.com

“J-Beauty isn’t for millennials — and that’s exactly why they want it”
Refinery29.com

Rodan + Fields sued in class-action over eyelash enhancer
CBSNews.com

Victoria Beckham wants her fashion brand to expand into cosmetics
TheDrum.com

Danish study advises against cosmetics purchases from popular US website Wish.com
ChemicalWatch.com

Beauty Bakerie CEO Cashmere Nicole opens up about the inclusive indie makeup brand’s massive success
Allure.com

Hawaii state legislature passes sunscreen ingredients bill limiting the sale of octinoxate and oxybenzone
TeenVogue.com

Jackie Aina opens up about finding her voice in Youtube’s beauty community
Allure.com

Estée Lauder to retest products after CEO apologizes for false ad claims
Allure.com

Huda Beauty’s vagina-lightening blog post sparks controversy
Allure.com

‘Cool blond Asians’ are giving me an identity crisis
Glamour.com

Makeup artist Sir John shares some of Beyonce’s stage makeup routine
Glamour.com

More invasive plastic surgery procedures are on the rise
Allure.com

Research and Technology

Evaluation of selected skin parameters following the application of 5% vitamin C concentrate
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

Association between clinical characteristics, quality of life, and sleep quality in patients with periorbital hyperchromia
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

Fluorofenidone inhibits UVA induced senescence in human dermal fibroblasts via the mammalian target of rapamycin‐dependent SIRT1 pathway
The Journal of Dermatology

Comparative study of the bactericidal effects of indocyanine green and methyl aminolevulinate‐based photodynamic therapy on Propionibacterium acnes as a new treatment for acne
The Journal of Dermatology

Sarcoidal foreign body reaction as a severe side-effect to permanent makeup: Successful treatment with intralesional triamcinolone
Acta Dermato-Venereologica

Amelioration of lactic acid sensations in sensitive skin by stimulating the barrier function and improving the ceramide profile
Archives of Dermatological Research

Improvement of dermal parameters in aged skin after oral use of a nutrient supplement
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology

Fractional sunburn threshold UVR doses generate equivalent vitamin D and DNA damage in skin types I-VI, but with epidermal DNA damage gradient correlated to skin darkness
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Blocking or enhancing effects of some basic emollients in UVA penetration
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia

Melanoma underreporting among US dermatopathologists: A pilot study
Journal of Cutaneous Pathology

Chemical peels for acne vulgaris: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials
BMJ Open

Genetic customization of antiaging treatments
Journal of Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research

Vitamin C and skin
Journal of Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research

Preparation and characterization of ethosomal nanocarriers for transdermal delivery of cosmetic bioactive ingredient
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Treatment of nodulocystic acne with once weekly finasteride: A pilot study
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Over expression of opsin 3 up-regulates the activity of tyrosinase in human epidermis melanocytes co-cultured with keratinocytes in vitro
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Superoxide dismutase 3 controls Th2 cytokine-mediated allergic inflammation through inhibition of periostin
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Quorum sensing between bacterial species on skin protects against barrier disruption and inflammation promoted by Staphylococcus aureus
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Targeting hyaluronan in the skin alters reactive adipogenesis in the colon
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Role of nucleotide excision repair pathway in insulin-like growth factor-1-mediated keratinocyte photoresponses
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Targeted activation of lymphatic vessels in inflamed skin potently inhibits skin inflammation
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Photoprotective properties of an Entada phaseoloides seeds extract obtained by sequential enzymatic processing
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Galectin-3 regulates UVB-induced inflammation in skin
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Spironolactone depletes XPB protein and inhibits the UVB DNA damage response in human skin
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Propionibacterium acnes carbohydrates from acne associated phylotypes induce distinct inflammatory response in comparison to carbohydrates from healthy phylotypes: A potential ligand implicated in acne disease pathogenesis
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Dissecting the molecular interdependence of skin inflammation and obesity
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

The acne microbiome response to isotretinoin therapy
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Perforin-2: A novel antimicrobial protein that kills intracellular bacteria in healthy skin, but not In chronic ulcers
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Divergent trends in acne vulgaris interest and research a decade of lost face value in the United States
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

"#BeautyRecap: May 8th, 2018" on KindofStephen.

]]>
https://kindofstephen.com/beautyrecap-may-8th-2018/feed/ 0 2672
#BeautyRecap: May 1st, 2018 https://kindofstephen.com/beautyrecap-may-1st-2018/ https://kindofstephen.com/beautyrecap-may-1st-2018/#respond Tue, 01 May 2018 12:00:52 +0000 https://kindofstephen.com/?p=2625 Products and Reviews Soko Glam x COSRX Triple C Lightning celebrates anniversary with limited-edition holographic bottle Allure.com A look at Orveda launched by a former L’Oreal executive NewBeauty.com Urban Decay launches Beached Collection TeenVogue.com Colourpop launches Spring makeup collection with MakeupShayla TeenVogue.com Makeup artist Gucci Westman launches skincare and makeup line, Westman Atelier Glamour.com Pat […]

"#BeautyRecap: May 1st, 2018" on KindofStephen.

]]>
Products and Reviews

Soko Glam x COSRX Triple C Lightning celebrates anniversary with limited-edition holographic bottle
Allure.com

A look at Orveda launched by a former L’Oreal executive
NewBeauty.com

Urban Decay launches Beached Collection
TeenVogue.com

Colourpop launches Spring makeup collection with MakeupShayla
TeenVogue.com

Makeup artist Gucci Westman launches skincare and makeup line, Westman Atelier
Glamour.com

Pat McGrath labs to add lip glosses to permanent collection
Allure.com

Unicorn Snot launches holographic sunscreen
Allure.com

Dr. Barbara Sturm launches baby skincare collection, Mini Molecular
Vogue.com

A look at Spring launches at Ulta
Glamour.com

Skincare and Beauty

The women keeping Reddit’s beauty community a judgment-free space
Glamour.com

Pinterest now lets you filter by skin tone for beauty searches
Allure.com, NewBeauty.com

“The new generation of moisturizers sound completely delectable”
Elle.com

Pat McGrath shares her beauty must-haves
Elle.com

Kim Kardashian West shares her $4,500 skin-care routine
Allure.com

Photographer and creative director Zanita Whittington, “I spend $2,279 on my skin care routine, and I wouldn’t change a thing”
Glamour.com

Kourtney Kardashian visited congress to discuss regulation in the cosmetics industry
TeenVogue.com

Watch ‘100 Years of Acne Treatment’ by Allure
Allure.com

Makeup artist Bobbi Brown is reinventing herself as a wellness guru
WMagazine.com

A look at the growing cannabis trend in skincare
VanityFair.com

Asia and World

US FDA warns 3 Korean cosmetic and pharmaceutical firms for rule violations
YonhapNews.co.kr

“Jakarta’s new take on beauty standards”
JakartaGlobe.id

Korean cosmetic manufacturers are making inroads into the US
KoreaBizwire.com

‘Mini-Golden Week’ to bring shopping boom as cash-rich visitors flock to Hong Kong for holiday
SCMP.com

Study finds microplastics in Indian cosmetics
DowntoEarth.org.in

Research and Innovation

Evaluation of selected skin parameters following the application of 5% vitamin C concentrate
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

Urban particulate matter in air pollution penetrates into the barrier-disrupted skin and produces ROS-dependent cutaneous inflammatory response in vivo
Journal of Dermatological Science

A novel, topical, nonsteroidal, TRPV1 antagonist, PAC-14028 cream improves skin barrier function and exerts anti-inflammatory action through modulating epidermal differentiation markers and suppressing Th2 cytokines in atopic dermatitis
Journal of Dermatological Science

Antimicrobial activity of cytolytic Th17 cells targeting propionibacterium acnes
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Exploring the relationship between stress and acne: a medical student’s perspective
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology

Platelet-rich plasma versus tretinoin in treatment of striae distensae: A comparative study
Dermatologic Surgery

Mechanism of action of topical garlic on wound healing
Dermatologic Surgery

The change of body skin with aging compared to face skin in Chinese women
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Skin neurogenic inflammation
Seminars in Immunopathology

Association between clinical characteristics, quality of life, and sleep quality in patients with periorbital hyperchromia
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

Platelet‐rich plasma on female androgenetic alopecia: Tested on 10 patients
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

Evaluation of sex ‐related changes in skin topography and structure using innovative skin testing equipment
Skin Research and Technology

Evaluation of the molecular lipid organization in millimeter ‐sized stratum corneum by synchrotron X‐ray diffraction
Skin Research and Technology

Antera 3D capabilities for pore measurements
Skin Research and Technology

Prevalence of skin allergy and irritation to cosmetics and associated factors in China: Lessons from more than 600,000 patch test case reactions from over 10,000 individual visits
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Genetic ancestry does not influence atopic dermatitis susceptibility or disease activity among African Americans
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Allergens or non-allergens can induce Th2-type inflammation via reactive oxygen species in keratinocytes
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Mechanical stretch exacerbates psoriasis by promoting cell proliferation and amplifying pro-inflammatory effects of keratinocytes
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Correlates of low sun-protection factor sunscreen users in 2000-2015: A population based study
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Atopic dermatitis is associated with fragile homes in US children
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Potential use of essential oil isolated from Cleistocalyx operculatus leaves as a topical dermatological agent for treatment of burn wound
Dermatology Research and Practice

"#BeautyRecap: May 1st, 2018" on KindofStephen.

]]>
https://kindofstephen.com/beautyrecap-may-1st-2018/feed/ 0 2625
#BeautyRecap: April 17th, 2018 https://kindofstephen.com/beautyrecap-april-17th-2018/ https://kindofstephen.com/beautyrecap-april-17th-2018/#respond Tue, 17 Apr 2018 12:00:26 +0000 https://kindofstephen.com/?p=2591 Research and Innovation In vitro percutaneous penetration of silver nanoparticles in pig and human skin Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology Aggregate exposure to common fragrance compounds: Comparison of the contribution of essential oils and cosmetics using probabilistic methods and the example of limonene Food and Chemical Toxicology New antimicrobial peptide kills drug-resistant pathogens without detectable resistance […]

"#BeautyRecap: April 17th, 2018" on KindofStephen.

]]>

Research and Innovation

In vitro percutaneous penetration of silver nanoparticles in pig and human skin
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology

Aggregate exposure to common fragrance compounds: Comparison of the contribution of essential oils and cosmetics using probabilistic methods and the example of limonene
Food and Chemical Toxicology

New antimicrobial peptide kills drug-resistant pathogens without detectable resistance
Oncotarget

Effect of age on melanoma risk, prognosis and treatment response
Acta Dermato-Venereologica

Protective effects of glutamine on human melanocyte oxidative stress model
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology

Anti-inflammatory effect of Sacran on atopic dermatitis
Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan

Potential use of sacran hydrogels as wound dressing material
Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan

Indoor tanners as a priority population for skin cancer screening
JAMA

Skin barrier restoration and moisturization using horse oil-loaded dissolving microneedle patches
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology

Photoprotection in adolescents: What they know and how they behave
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia

Sun-protection behaviour, pubertal development and menarche: Factors influencing the melanocytic nevi development. The results of a observational study on 1512 children
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Evaluation of adolescents diagnosed with acne vulgaris for quality of life and psychosocial challenges
Indian Journal of Dermatology

The effect of skin surface topography and skin colouration cues on perception of male facial age, health and attractiveness
International Journal of Cosmetic Science

Anti-inflammatory effect of Centella asiatica phytosome in a mouse model of phthalic anhydride-induced atopic dermatitis
Phytomedicine

Piper retrofractum vahl. extract, as a PPAR δ and AMPK activator, suppresses UVB-induced photoaging through mitochondrial biogenesis and MMPs inhibition in human dermal fibroblasts and hairless mice
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Influence of epidermal basement membrane integrity on cutaneous permeability barrier function
Journal of Dermatological Science

Lipidomics reveals skin surface lipid abnormity in male youth acne
BJD

Dual effects of alpha-hydroxy acids on the skin
Molecules

Is biotin safe for dermatology patients?
Skin Appendage Disorders

The efficacy of a pseudo-ceramide and eucalyptus extract containing lotion on dry scalp skin
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology

Barriers to adherence with acne medications and physician intervention
JAMA

"#BeautyRecap: April 17th, 2018" on KindofStephen.

]]>
https://kindofstephen.com/beautyrecap-april-17th-2018/feed/ 0 2591
#BeautyRecap: April 3rd, 2018 https://kindofstephen.com/beautyrecap-april-3rd-2018/ https://kindofstephen.com/beautyrecap-april-3rd-2018/#respond Tue, 03 Apr 2018 17:36:51 +0000 https://kindofstephen.com/?p=2570 Products and Reviews A preview of MAC Cosmetics’ Aaliyah inspired collection Elle.com Rihanna reveals Fenty Beauty’s Fair Bomb glitter body powder Allure.com A look at Urban Decay’s Beached Summer Beauty collection TeenVogue.com A look at Patrick Starr and MAC Cosmetics’ latest collaboration Elle.com Nannette de Gaspe launches skincare collection Allure.com All Milk Makeup products are […]

"#BeautyRecap: April 3rd, 2018" on KindofStephen.

]]>
Products and Reviews

A preview of MAC Cosmetics’ Aaliyah inspired collection
Elle.com

Rihanna reveals Fenty Beauty’s Fair Bomb glitter body powder
Allure.com

A look at Urban Decay’s Beached Summer Beauty collection
TeenVogue.com

A look at Patrick Starr and MAC Cosmetics’ latest collaboration
Elle.com

Nannette de Gaspe launches skincare collection
Allure.com

All Milk Makeup products are now vegan
TeenVogue.com

A look at TruSkin Naturals Vitamin C serum
Allure.com

Skincare and Beauty

Gwen Stefani is reportedly launching a makeup line called P8NT
WMagazine.com

Allure recommends 13 sunscreens for people with deeper skin tones
Allure.com

Ren pledges to be a zero-waste beauty company by 2021
Allure.com

A look at the acne-positivity movement
Glamour.com

Naomi Campbell urges Vogue to launch an African edition
BusinessofFashion.com

Model Duckie Thot shares her beauty routine
WMagazine.com

Six models at Seoul Fashion Week reveal skincare tips their mothers’ gave them
Vogue.com

A look at dermaplaning by Sarah Kinonen at Allure
Allure.com

6 founders of “green” and “natural” skincare brands share the products they can’t live without
Allure.com

Chloe Hall of Elle’s experience at elf cosmetics BeautyScape
Elle.com

“Working in beauty empowered me to come out as Trans”, Lauren Sundstrom’s story
TeenVogue.com

An interview with dermatologist Dr. Tina Alster
Allure.com

Asia and World

Cambodia destroys over 60 tonnes of counterfeit cosmetics
VanguardNGR.com

Research and Innovation

A healthy diet in women is associated with less facial wrinkles in a large Dutch population-based cohort
JAAD

Accelerated barrier recovery and enhancement of the barrier integrity and properties by topical application of a pH 4 compared to a pH 5.8 w/o emulsion in aged skin
BJD

Optimizing the use of topical retinoids in Asian acne patients
The Journal of Dermatology – Japan

Specific barrier response profiles after experimentally induced skin irritation in vivo
Contact Dermatitis

Paucity of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health-related content in the basic dermatology curriculum
JAMA Dermatology

Ischemic oculomotor nerve palsy due to hyaluronic acid filler injection
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

Turmeric tonic as a treatment in scalp psoriasis: A randomized placebo‐control clinical trial
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

Photodynamic therapy interventions in facial photodamage: A systematic review
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas

Photodynamic therapy for esthetic-cosmetic indications
Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia

High fat diet exacerbates early psoriatic skin inflammation independent of obesity: Saturated fatty acids as key players
JID

Severe disruption and disorganization of dermal collagen fibrils in early striae gravidarum
BJD

Skin cancer risk and the use of UV nail lamps
The Australasian Journal of Dermatology

Effect of age, gender, and sun exposure on ethnic skin photoaging: Evidence gathered using a new photonumeric scale
Journal of the National Medical Association

Atmospheric skin aging – Contributors and inhibitors
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

Multi-center, double-blind, vehicle-controlled clinical trial of an alpha and beta defensin-containing anti-aging skin care regimen with clinical, histopathologic, immunohistochemical, photographic, and ultrasound evaluation
JDD

An acne survey from the world’s largest annual gathering of twins
JDD

Prospective, randomized, investigator-blinded, split-face evaluation of a topical crosslinked hyaluronic acid serum for post-procedural improvement of skin quality and biomechanical attributes
JDD

Dihydroxyacetone: A review
JDD

Dermatology on Instagram: An analysis of hashtags
JDD

Topical agents for scar management: Are they effective?
JDD

In vivo evaluation of some biophysical parameters of the facial skin of Indian subjects living in Mumbai. Part II: Variability with age and gender
International Journal of Cosmetic Science

Correlations between skin hydration parameters and corneocyte‐derived parameters to characterize skin conditions
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

Rice water: A traditional ingredient with antI-aging efficacy
Cosmetics

Sun-protection behaviour, pubertal development and menarche: factors influencing the melanocytic nevi development. The results of an observational study on 1512 children
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Unveiling skin macrophage dynamics explains both tattoo persistence and strenuous removal
The Journal of Experimental Medicine

Investigating the effect of eye cosmetics on the tear film: current insights
Clinical Optometry

Malignant melanoma associated with chronic once daily aspirin exposure in males: a large, single-center, urban, U.S. patient population cohort study from the Research on Adverse Drug events And Reports (RADAR) project
JAAD

"#BeautyRecap: April 3rd, 2018" on KindofStephen.

]]>
https://kindofstephen.com/beautyrecap-april-3rd-2018/feed/ 0 2570
Everybody’s free to wear sunscreen https://kindofstephen.com/everybodys-free-to-wear-sunscreen/ Wed, 28 Mar 2018 14:35:15 +0000 https://kindofstephen.com/?p=2522  You’ve probably seen this photo of a man who received chronic UV exposure on the left side of his face over the course of 28 years working as a truck driver. While this shows the effect that UV has on the skin, what’s important to keep in mind is that windows only block UVB […]

"Everybody’s free to wear sunscreen" on KindofStephen.

]]>

You’ve probably seen this photo of a man who received chronic UV exposure on the left side of his face over the course of 28 years working as a truck driver. While this shows the effect that UV has on the skin, what’s important to keep in mind is that windows only block UVB light whereas UVA is often passed through.

Chronic UVA exposure can result in thickening of the epidermis and stratum corneum, as well as destruction of elastic fibers.

Unfortunately, for those of us living in Canada, the US, and Australia the amount of UVA protection offered by sunscreens is only given in relative terms. The UVA circle logo, for example, let’s you know that the UVA protection is at least 1/3rd of the SPF protection of the sunscreen, but it’s not as informative as a UVA protection factor (UVAPF) or persistent pigmentation darkening (PPD) number. While the PA system used in some Asian countries is based on a PPD number, the data is compressed into categories.

My personal thought is that the UVA protection should be as close to the SPF protection as possible. These are the sunscreens that I personally recommend; based on UVA protection, how they feel and wear on the skin, and affordability. While there are many great sunscreens out there, many of them are too expensive for me and I end up “rationing” them – which is a no-no when it comes to sunscreen application.


Bioderma Photoderm MAX Spray SPF 50+ with UVAPF 33 is a large sized and affordable sunscreen with a moderately high UVAPF. It is a lipid based formula (Dicaprylyl Carbonate) which spreads easily and is not greasy on the skin. I recommend the larger 400 mL size which comes with a snap lock which makes it easy to travel with. I use this on face and body.

It prices out to about 10 US cents per mL.

Sunscreen filters in bold:

Aqua/water/eau, Dicaprylyl Carbonate, Octocrylene, Methylene Bis-benzotriazolyl Tetramethylbutylphenol [Nano], Butyl Methoxydibenzoylmethane, Bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol Methoxyphenyl Triazine, Cyclopentasiloxane, Methylpropanediol, Ectoin, Mannitol, Xylitol, Rhamnose, Fructooligosaccharides, Laminaria Ochroleuca Extract, Decyl Glucoside, C20-22 Alkyl Phosphate, C20-22 Alcohols, Xanthan Gum, Propylene Glycol, Citric Acid, Caprylic/capric Triglyceride, Sodium Hydroxide, Microcrystalline Cellulose, Pentylene Glycol, 1,2-Hexanediol, Caprylyl Glycol, Cellulose Gum, Disodium EDTA.


Ombrelle Ultra Light Advanced Weightless Body Lotion SPF 50 is another affordable sunscreen I recommend. Canada’s Ombrelle was acquired by L’Oreal which is why this product contains Mexoryl sunscreens, which are patented and used exclusively by L’Oreal companies. Because of regulations, the UVAPF or PPD is not able to be listed, but this does have the UVA circle logo. It contains 2% Mexoryl SX which is the stronger UVA absorber compared to Mexoryl XL. It is lightweight, dries quickly, affordable, and easily accessible for Canadians. While it is marketed as a body sunscreen, I use it on my face. It’s much lighter in texture compared to Ombrelle’s other sunscreens marketed for the face.

It prices out to about 12 US cents per mL.

Sunscreen filters in bold

Homosalate: 10%, Oxybenzone: 6%, Octisalate: 5%, Octocrylene: 5%, Avobenzone: 3%, Ecamsul (Mexoryl® SX): 2%. Others/Autres: Aqua, Cyclopentasiloxane, Alcohol Denat., Cyclohexasiloxane, Styrene/Acrylatescopolymer, Silica, Dicaprylyl Ether, PEG-30 Dipolyhydroxystearate, Dimethicone, Triethanolamine, Glycerin, Nylon-12 Polymethylsilsesquioxane, Dicaprylyl Carbonate, Tocopherol, Dodecene, Phenoxyethanol, PEG-8 Laurate, Poly C10-30 Alkyl Acrylate, Poloxamer 407, Caprylyl Glycol, Disteardimonium Hectorite,Disodium EDTA, Lauryl PEG


Sheer Zinc Face Dry-Touch Sunscreen Broad Spectrum SPF 50 is a newer sunscreen and contains only Zinc Oxide as its sunscreen filter. Be warned, this has a very strong whitecast and a thick silicone texture which can pill. I find it best to apply this to small areas of the skin while blending thoroughly.

The reason why I recommend this sunscreen, despite its drawbacks, is based on a presentation that Johnson & Johnson gave at the 2017 American Academy of Dermatology’s Annual meeting showing that their 21.6% Zinc Oxide sunscreen had a UVAPF of 30. Other inorganic sunscreens I’ve seen have only been able to reach a UVAPF of about 18-25.

While the Neutrogena Sheer Zinc was not explicitly named, the launch time and Zinc Oxide content of 21.6% suggests to me that this is the product described.

They compared its absorption spectrum, in vitro, with other common inorganic sunscreens and were able to show that it absorbed more UVA in comparison

I must say again how strong the white cast is, hopefully in the future they release tinted versions!

Based on the above chart it’s likely that the tinted Elta MD SPF 41 with 9.0% Zinc Oxide and 7.0% Titanium Dioxide has a UVAPF of around 28, I’ve not personally tried the product, but I do know it is popular. It prices out to about 35 US cents per mL.

The Neutrogena Sheer Zinc prices out to about 15 US Cents per mL.

Sunscreen filters are in bold

Zinc Oxide 21.6%. Others: Water, C12-15 Alkyl Benzoate, Styrene/acrylates Copolymer, Octyldodecyl Citrate Crosspolymer, Phenyl Trimethicone, Cetyl PEG/PPG-10/1 Dimethicone, Dimethicone, Polyhydroxystearic Acid, Glycerin, Ethyl Methicone, Cetyl Dimethicone, Silica, Chrysanthemum Parthenium (Feverfew) Flower/leaf/stem Juice, Glyceryl Behenate, Phenethyl Alcohol, Caprylyl Glycol, Cetyl Dimethicone/bis-vinyldimethicone Crosspolymer, Acrylates/dimethicone Copolymer, Sodium Chloride, Phenoxyethanol, Chlorphenesin.


J.R.S. Gordon, J.C. Brieva, Unilateral Dermatoheliosis, The New England Journal of Medicine (2012), DOI: 10.1056/NEJMicm1104059

"Everybody’s free to wear sunscreen" on KindofStephen.

]]>
2522
#BeautyRecap: March 27th, 2018 https://kindofstephen.com/beautyrecap-march-27th-2018/ https://kindofstephen.com/beautyrecap-march-27th-2018/#respond Tue, 27 Mar 2018 12:00:19 +0000 https://kindofstephen.com/?p=2510 Products and Reviews A look at Becca’s Chocolate Geode highlighter PopSugar.co.uk A review of La Prairie’s $1200 USD Platinum Rare Cellular Night Elixir Elle.com A look at Melt Cosmetics’ Aaliyah inspired range Allure.com eos launches Aqua range of skincare products Allure.com A look at Bare Republic’s Neon Sunscreen Stick Allure.com ColourPop expanding its concealer shade […]

"#BeautyRecap: March 27th, 2018" on KindofStephen.

]]>
Products and Reviews

A look at Becca’s Chocolate Geode highlighter
PopSugar.co.uk

A review of La Prairie’s $1200 USD Platinum Rare Cellular Night Elixir
Elle.com

A look at Melt Cosmetics’ Aaliyah inspired range
Allure.com

eos launches Aqua range of skincare products
Allure.com

A look at Bare Republic’s Neon Sunscreen Stick
Allure.com

ColourPop expanding its concealer shade offerings
Allure.com

Skincare and Beauty

Jackie Aina collaborating with Too Faced to expand their foundation range
TeenVogue.com

Rachel Nussbaum’s experience with eyebrow transplants
Glamour.com

“Nude is no longer one shade fits all” by Jessica Cruel and Amber Rambharose at Glamour
Glamour.com

Adam Rippon shares his skin-care routine
Allure.com

US FDA investigating reports of tremolite asbestos in makeup
ChemicalWatch.com

US FDA investigates reports of hair loss and burns from Monat hair care
10News.com

Students at Mexico’s National Polytechnic Institute use mushrooms to develop cosmetics
TheQuint.com

“Why glycerin is the ultimate moisturizing ingredient in skin-care products” by Macaela Mackenzie at Allure
Allure.com

An overview of the patting skincare technique
Allure.com

Caitlyn Jenner had basal cell carcinoma removed from her nose
Allure.com

Rise in skin cancer diagnoses may be linked to indoor tanning bed use
Allure.com

Asia and World

List of products recalled due to antimony contamination
SCMP.com, TheInvestor.co.kr, BusinessKorea.co.kr

AmorePacific apologizes after antimony found in some of their cosmetics
KoreaTimes.co.kr

A look at FANCL’s “preservative-free” ethos
AsiaTatler.com

Research and Innovation

Reducing the oral isotretinoin skin side effects: efficacy of 8% omega-ceramides, hydrophilic sugars, 5% niacinamide cream compound in acne patients
Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia

Anthocyanins from black soybean seed coat prevent radiation-induced skin fibrosis by downregulating TGF- β and Smad3 expression
Archives of Dermatological Research

Short-term LXR activation improves epidermal barrier features in mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis: a randomized controlled trial
Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology

The use of hormonal antiandrogen therapy in female patients with acne: A 10-year retrospective study
American Journal of Clinical Dermatology

Facial changes in the mature patient
Clinics in Dermatology

Mechanism of cuticle hole development in human hair due to UV-radiation exposure
Cosmetics

Anti-inflammatory effects of a mixture of lactic acid bacteria and sodium butyrate in atopic dermatitis murine model
Journal of Medicinal Food

UVA-photoprotective potential of silymarin and silybin
Archives of Dermatological Research

A modeling conundrum: Murine models for cutaneous wound healing
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Propionibacterium acnes induces autophagy in keratinocytes: Involvement of multiple mechanisms
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Aging-associated decline of epidermal PSMD8 contributes to impaired skin function
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Punicalagin and epigallocatechin-3-gallate rescue cell viability and attenuate inflammatory responses of human epidermal keratinocytes exposed to airborne particulate matter
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology

Protective effect of curcumin against UVA irradiation ‑induced photoaging in human dermal fibroblasts
Molecular Medicine Reports

"#BeautyRecap: March 27th, 2018" on KindofStephen.

]]>
https://kindofstephen.com/beautyrecap-march-27th-2018/feed/ 0 2510
Adapalene 0.3% may help improve the appearance of atrophic acne scars https://kindofstephen.com/adapalene-0-3-may-help-improve-the-appearance-of-atrophic-acne-scars/ Wed, 21 Mar 2018 12:00:40 +0000 http://kindofstephen.com/?p=2446 A group of researchers sponsored by Galderma, a subsidiary of Nestle, have published the results of a series of experiments looking at the effect that Adapalene had on the prevention and treatment of atrophic scarring as well as acne. Atrophic scarring is caused by a loss of tissue, so they can appear as sunken areas […]

"Adapalene 0.3% may help improve the appearance of atrophic acne scars" on KindofStephen.

]]>
A group of researchers sponsored by Galderma, a subsidiary of Nestle, have published the results of a series of experiments looking at the effect that Adapalene had on the prevention and treatment of atrophic scarring as well as acne.

Source: Art of Dermatology

Atrophic scarring is caused by a loss of tissue, so they can appear as sunken areas in the skin or even as holes, commonly referred to as ‘ice pick’ scars.

There were three experiments in total, a pilot study with 20 participants that compared Adapalene 0.3% gel compared to a control vehicle, another pilot study with 31 participants comparing Adapalene 0.1% and Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% gel with a control vehicle, and a larger study with 54 participants comparing Adapalene 0.3% and Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% gel with a control vehicle.

All three experiments were pre-registered on ClinicalTrials.gov which helps reduce reporting bias. Often there is no incentive or reason to report on data from an experiment if there is no effect.

I’m going to focus on the latter paper as it has the most statistical power (> 80%) and the most clinically relevant results.

In brief, the experiment using Adapalene 0.1% with Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% gel showed no change in the amount of atrophic scarring after 6 months of treatment, but people using the vehicle control saw an increase in scars (about 2 more scars after 6 months).

In the pilot study with Adapalene 0.3%, participants and investigators saw an improvement in scarring assessments at Week 1 and Week 24.

All three studies found a clinically relevant and statistically significant reduction in acne lesions for those using any Adapalene based gels.

With the Adapalene 0.3% with Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% gel study, there was a statistically significant improvement in the scar assessment as early as Week 1.

By the end of the experiment at Week 25, there was a 15.5% decrease in a validated scar assessment scale – this worked out to about a mean decrease of 2 acne scars per half of the face.

Participants applied the Adapalene gel to only half of the face and the vehicle control on the other half, the researchers believe that if participants had applied the Adapalene gel to the whole face, there would be a decrease of a mean of about 4 acne scars for the entire face.

For the vehicle control side that contained no Adapalene, participants saw an increase of about 1.5 acne scars at the end of 24 weeks.

In terms of non-validated assessments, the amount of patients who responded to “How visible are the indents or holes to you?” with “A little visible” increased from 37.5% at Week 1 to 62.1% at Week 24.

Because some atrophic scarring can resolve on its own, the researchers believed the decrease in scarring with the Adapalene 0.3% and Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% gel could be due to an increase in the speed of this resolution. For older scars, they believe that the Adapalene gel could be due to remodelling the dermis of the skin (possibly through stimulation of procollagen), improving their appearance.

Another factor would be the reduction in inflammatory acne lesions which could lead to new atrophic scarring formation.

The researchers point out that scar improvement was seen past 3 months, and that people using Adapalene may consider using the product for longer than 6 adapalene to help improve and prevent the appearance of atrophic scarring

In the US, Adapalene is now available over-the-counter as Differin with Adapalene at 0.1%. If you have moderate-to-severe acne with atrophic scarring you may consider speaking to your doctor and getting a prescription for the stronger 0.3%.

In terms of other retinoids, the researchers point out that there isn’t much research on topical use and improvement in atrophic scarring. For tretinoin I did find two studies, but they included other interventions in combination with the tretinoin. One used iontophoresis to enhance the penetration of tretinoin, and another used tretinoin in combination with microneedling. Both studies found improvement in atrophic scarring. Adapalene and other retinoids activate some of the same receptors, and since topical use of tretinoin has shown to increase procollagen as well, it’s likely that it will provide improvement on atrophic scarring as well.

B. Dreno, J. Tan, M. Rivier, P. Martel, R. Bissonnette, Adapalene 0.1%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel reduces the risk
of atrophic scar formation in moderate inflammatory acne:
a split-face randomized controlled trial, Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (2016), DOI: 10.1111/jdv.14026

M.J. Loss, S. Leung, A. Chien, N. Kerrouche, A.H. Fischer, S. Kang, Adapalene 0.3% gel shows efficacy for the treatment of atrophic acne scars, Dermatology and Therapy (2018), DOI: 10.1007/s13555-018-0231-8

B. Dréno, R. Bissonnette, A. Gagné-Henley, B. Barankin, C. Lynde, N. Kerrouche, J. Tan, Prevention and reduction of atrophic acne scars with adapalene 0.3%/Benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel in subjects with moderate or severe facial acne: Results of a 6-month randomized, vehicle-controlled trial using intra-individual comparison, American Journal of Clinical Dermatology (2018), DOI: 10.1007/s40257-018-0352-y

"Adapalene 0.3% may help improve the appearance of atrophic acne scars" on KindofStephen.

]]>
2446