Visualizing how a daily sunscreen can protect the skin from UV damage

Optical coherence tomography and reflectance confocal microscopy can be used to non-invasively to visualize deep into the skin. Using these techniques we can actually see changes in the structure of the skin and its cells.

This group of researchers with funding from La Roche Posay used the imaging techniques to compare the effect of UVB exposure on skin protected with a high SPF and UVAPF sunscreen and skin that wasn’t protected.

What they found was that doses of UVB that caused long-lasting erythema (redness) caused morphological changes in the skin. Changes observed were spongiosis (abnormal accumulation of fluid), microvesicles, sunburn cells, and blood vessel dilation. None of these were observed in skin that was protected by the sunscreen.

A minimal erythemal dose or MED is the amount of UV energy that causes long-lasting redness in the skin. Just 1 MED was enough to cause morphological changes and 2 caused significantly more. This also relates to SPF. An SPF of 2 would provide enough protection to protect an average population against 2 MEDs.

If reducing your risk of developing skin cancers and preventing photoaging are a goal of yours – this is a great reminder and justification to wear your sunscreen daily!

Antonio Gomes-Neto, Paula Aguilera, Leonor Prieto, Sophie Seité, Dominique Moyal, Cristina Carrera, Josep Malvehy, Susana Puig, Efficacy of a Daily Protective Moisturizer with High UVB and UVA Photoprotection in Decreasing Ultraviolet Damage: Evaluation by Reflectance Confocal Microscopy, Acta Dermato-Venereologica (2018), doi: 10.2340/00015555-2736

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#BeautyRecap: February 13th, 2018

Products and Reviews

A look at the e.l.f. Cosmetics and Christian Siriano collaboration
TheGloss.com

A look at Almay’s Make Them Jelly Hi-Lite
Allure.com

A review of the VegaBrow serum
Glamour.com

Dove launches DermaSeries line for very dry skin
PRNewswire.com

A look at Mileo’s range of face oils
Vogue.com

A look at the Becca Cosmetics x Sananas Parisian Lights Highlighter
Allure.com

A look at Urban Decay’s Naked Heat mini-palette
Glamour.com

A look at ColourPop’s Moonlight Magic collection
HypeBae.com

Obagi Medical launches SusanObagiMD range of skincare
PRNewswire.com

Retail and Trends

“Trendy skin care company Deciem’s drama feels a whole lot like the tech world”
Buzzfeed.com

Kat Von D responds to controversy surrounding her Basket Case eyeliner ads
TeenVogue.com

Jung Saem Mool to be available in Bergdorfs
WWD.com – Paywall

Skincare and Beauty

Lindsay Lohan is launching a beauty brand
WMagazine.com

UFC star Conor McGregor set for trademark battle with make-up giant MAC
IrishMirror.ie

17 men share their beauty routines with Elle
Elle.com

Allure recommends 12 moisturizers with SPF
Allure.com

Vanity Fair takes a look at South Korean-made beauty products
VanityFair.com

Asia and World

South Korean convenience stores branching out into beauty and pet supplies
KoreaBizwire.com

South Korean beauty stores are experimenting with a hands-off sales approach
KoreaJoongangDaily.joins.com

S. Korea’s Emerson Pacific ventures into cosmetics territory with Greek plant resin mastic
PulseNews.co.kr

“In Seoul, residents frown on ads for cosmetic procedures”
NPR.org

Outreach

UFC-Que Choisir has filed a court action against five major cosmetics manufacturers for failing to disclose nanoparticles
ChemicalWatch.com

Lawsuit claims Ulta sold used makeup
TheFashionLaw.com

Growing trend of microblading raises questions over state regulations
WNCT.com

Michigan congressman introduces legislation to ban asbestos in children’s makeup
WXYZ.com

Corporate

L’Oreal ready to buy Nestle stake in cosmetics leader
Reuters.com

Estee Lauder posts Q2 results: The transcript
SeekingAlpha.com

Avon names Avon names Unilever’s Jan Zijderveld as CEO after a long search
CNBC.com

Allergan to acquire University of Sydney spinoff Elastagen
Sydney.edu.au

P&G acquires New Zealand skincare brand Snowberry
NZHerald.co.nz

Marc Anthony Cosmetics acquires Canadian beauty brand Cake
Newswire.ca

Research and Innovation

Letter to the Editor: Oral retinoids and depression
British Journal of Dermatology

Risk of depression among patients with acne in the U.K.: a population ‐based cohort study
British Journal of Dermatology

Hyaluronan metabolism enhanced during epidermal differentiation is suppressed by Vitamin C
British Journal of Dermatology

A time-series study of the effect of air pollution on outpatient visits for acne vulgaris in Beijing
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology

Use of SkinFibrometer to measure skin elasticity and its correlation with Cutometer and DUB Skinscanner
Skin Research and Technology

Age-related differences in the functional properties of lips compared with skin
Skin Research and Technology

Plasma exeresis for active acne vulgaris: Clinical and in vivo microscopic documentation of treatment efficacy by means of reflectance confocal microscopy
Skin Research and Technology

Glycan distribution and density in native skin’s stratum corneum
Skin Research and Technology

Low-molecular weight keratins with anti-skin aging activity produced by anaerobic digestion of poultry feathers with Fervidobacterium islandicum AW-1
Journal of Biotechnology

A technique for more precise distinction between catagen and telogen human hair follicles ex-vivo
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology

Rethinking biotin therapy for hair, nail, and skin disorders
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology

The staining of clothing by sunscreens: a pilot study
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology

Sunscreen use in schools: a content analysis of U.S. state laws
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology

Yeasts from skin colonization are able to cross the acellular dermal matrix
Microbial Pathogenesis

Decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with atopic dermatitis: a reason for increasing resistance to antibiotics?
Advances in Dermatology and Allergology

The use of stem cells in aesthetic dermatology and plastic surgery procedures. A compact review of experimental and clinical applications
Advances in Dermatology and Allergology

One week of exposure to sunlight induces progerin expression in human skin
Advances in Dermatology and Allergology

The expression and function of galectins in skin physiology and pathology
Experimental Dermatology

Noninvasive quantitative analysis of ceramide in skin of healthy Chinese population
Skin Research and Technology

Antiaging efficacy of melatonin-based day and night creams: a randomized, split-face, assessor-blinded proof-of-concept trial
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology

Novel combination for the treatment of acne differentiated according to gender: a new step towards personalized treatment
Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia

Alternative activation of hedgehog pathway induced by ultraviolet B radiation: preliminary study
Clinical And Experimental Dermatology

Anti‐photoaging effect of Prunus yeonesis blossom extract via inhibition of MAPK/AP‐1 and regulation of the TGF‐βI/Smad and Nrf2/ARE signaling pathways
Photochemistry and Photobiology

Effects of repeated UVA irradiation on human skin fibroblasts embedded in 3D tense collagen matrix
Photochemistry and Photobiology

Epidermal lipid composition, barrier integrity and eczematous inflammation are associated with skin microbiome configuration
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

Nutraceuticals: A review
Dermatology and Therapy

Melatonin: A cutaneous perspective on its production, metabolism, and functions
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Inhibition of human tyrosinase requires molecular motifs distinctively different from mushroom tyrosinase
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Cosmetic functional ingredients from botanical sources for antI-pollution skincare products
Cosmetics

A new tool to test active ingredient using lactic acid in vitro, a help to understand cellular mechanism involved in stinging test
Experimental Dermatology

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What’s causing sunscreen to stain clothing?

Yellow stains on your clothing? Your sunscreen might be a culprit!

A group of researchers tested 32 commercial sunscreens for their ability to stain white and black 100% cotton.

Of the tested sunscreens; Alba Botanica Hawaiian SPF 50 Spray, L’Oreal Invisible Protect SPF 50, Solbar Thirty, and Aveeno Protect and Hydrate SPF 50 were among the most staining sunscreens.

The least staining sunscreens were; Cerave Baby, Solbar Zinc 38, Cerave Face SPF50, and Babyganics Mineral Based SPF 50

Using statistical analysis to group the sunscreens by sunscreen ingredients they created four distinct groups. Based on these groupings they tested 8 sunscreen ingredients; Avobenzone, Homosalate, Octinoxate, Octisalate, Octocrylene, Oxybenzone, Titanium Dioxide, and Zinc Oxide.

For white fabric; Avobenzone was a strong yellow stainer and so was Oxybenzone to a lesser extent. Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide both left faint white stains.

For dark blue fabric; Avobenzone and Oxybenzone both left faint white staining, but Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide left strong white stains.

The sunscreen ingredients were applied directly to the fabric, whereas in real-life it’s likely transferred to skin by friction and smearing throughout the day

A sunscreen that stains is by no means a reflection of its ability to protect your skin from UV. If reducing extrinsic photoaging is a goal, it’s important to use a sunscreen frequently. Often people are discouraged from using sunscreens because of the texture, scent, and in some cases staining of their clothes.

If staining is an issue I’ve had good luck with soaking it with 99% isopropyl alcohol and then a soak in sodium percarbonate (Oxiclean) or hydrogen peroxide.

Cornell also has a great stain guide for a myriad of stains.

Ginnetti M, Buhnerkempe M, Wilson M, The staining of clothing by
sunscreens: a pilot study, Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology (2018), doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2018.02.022

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Mushrooms aren’t people! Or why human clinical studies are the gold standard

Marketing language of skincare often leaves out on “what” the tests were done. Leading the consumer to believe that the testing was done on someone like them.

For many products aimed at treating hyperpigmentation, the claims are often based on the inhibition of tyrosinase, an enzyme found in plants and animals that plays a role in the creation of melanin. So it makes sense why inhibiting the effect of tyrosinase would lead to a decrease in melanin production in the skin. What’s often left out, is that most of these tests are performed on tyrosinase derived from the Agaricus bisporus mushroom.

What’s important to understand is that though the enzyme group may be the same, the structure and environment isn’t. Mushroom tyrosinase and human tyrosinase (hTyr) have different catalytic activities and substrate affinities.

Mushroom tyrosinase is easily accessed, commercially available, and cheap. Human tyrosinase until recently was difficult to produce and isolate.

As early as 2013, a group of researchers led by Petra Cordes were able to express hTyr in human kidney cells and then isolate them. This allowed them to 3D map the enzyme and use them in further tests.

Building upon this, scientists from Beiersdorf screened 50,000 compounds to see which ones effectively inhibited hTyr. What they found was interesting, but not surprising.

Some compounds which are very effective in inhibiting mushroom tyrosinase (like hydroquinone, arbutin, and kojic acid) had a reduced or minimal effect on hTyr.

Of the 50,000 compounds tested, thiazolyl-resorcinols were the most promising. They then modified it to be compatible with topical formulations leading to isobutylamido thiazolyl resorcinol.

An interesting thing they found about hydroquinone and its precursors like arbutin was their activity may be due to a cytotoxic effect on melanocytes. Their experiment showed a long-term reduction in melanocyte activity even after the hydroquinone or arbutin was stopped.

The group at Beiersdorf then went on to test 0.2% isobutylamido thiazolyl resorcinol on a group of humans for 4 weeks and were able to see a statistically significant and clinically relevant decrease in hyperpigmentation.

It’s very likely that Beiersdorf will patent the use of isbutlamido thiazolyl resorcinol for treating hyperpigmentation, especially if further human clinical trials are positive, but their methods for performing this test on human tyrosinase in MelanoDerm skin models have been shared with the scientific community.

Mann T, Gerwat W, Batzer J, Eggers K, Scherner C, Wenck H, Stäb F, Hearing VJ, Röhm K-H, Kolbe L, Inhibition of Human Tyrosinase Requires Molecular Motifs Distinctively Different from Mushroom Tyrosinase, The Journal of Investigative Dermatology (2018), doi: 10.1016/j.jid.2018.01.019.

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Does drinking more water make your skin more hydrated?

“Drink more water to hydrate your skin”. You’ve probably heard it, and it’s easy to see why this is common advice – it’s cheap, sounds right, and feels healthy…but is it true?

Researchers at the University of Berlin took a look at studies published in peer-reviewed journals that examined an increase in water intake and measurements of skin hydration. On Pubmed and Web of Science they found 216 records. Many of those were duplicates, unrelated, or didn’t have enough data. From those 23 were selected, many were dropped due to a high risk of bias…leaving them with 6.

With these 6 studies, of which 5 were experimental, the mean age of the samples ranged from 24 to 56. So if you’re much younger or older than that – these conclusions may not apply to you.

The experiments showed a slight, but statistically significant, increase in stratum corneum hydration when people drank an extra 1 to 2 litres of water a day. The increase was more significant if people were consuming low amounts of water previous to the experiment.

There was no difference in measurements of trans-epidermal water (TEWL) loss in any of the studies. TEWL is often used as an analogue of the skin’s barrier permeability and is a measurement of the amount of water evaporating from the skin. A decrease in TEWL is usually seen as a decrease in permeability.

Other studies looked at skin smoothness, skin roughness, and skin elasticity. While some of the studies showed slight positive effects when consuming mineral water, other similar studies showed no effect.

A couple papers looked at the effect of consuming water on the skin’s pH. In one experiment they found men had a slight decrease in skin pH when consuming 100 mL of water. And the other experiment found a decrease in skin pH when consuming 2.25 L of tap water, but not mineral water.

The researchers point out that measurement devices using electrical capacitance to measure stratum corneum hydration can be affected by dermal hydration. So the readings might be off. As well they point out that the “logical” thought of increased dermal hydration creating greater stratum corneum hydration isn’t necessarily correct. Hydration of the stratum corneum is more dependent on natural moisturizing factors, intercellular lipids, and the structure of the composing corneocytes.

Like most studies of this nature, their conclusion is “maybe” and “requires further research”. The researchers thought it’s possible that increased water intake could be increasing “deep” skin hydration, but unfortunately, the experiment reporting those results didn’t explain how that was measured – so it’s not strong evidence. As well, different types of water were used; each region’s tap water will be different, as will each source of mineral water.

I do want to touch quickly on hyponatremia – also known as “water poisoning”. When too much water (especially deionized) is consumed very quickly – electrolyte levels can drop drastically which can lead to fluid moving into cells causing damage to the body. While everyone is different, the amounts needed to cause hyponatremia are quite large – one paper reported on soldiers who had died from hyponatremia found that the amount consumed was 10-20 litres in a few hours and was combined with exertive exercise.

My thoughts? Adding a litre or two of extra water a day isn’t going to transform your skin – but it probably isn’t a harmful habit either if the intake is spread out throughout the day.

Akdeniz M, Tomova-Simitchieva T,
Dobos G, Blume-Peytavi U, Kottner J. Does dietary fluid intake
affect skin hydration in healthy humans? A systematic
literature review. Skin Res Technol. 2018;00:1–7.
https://doi.org/10.1111/srt.12454

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#BeautyRecap: January 30th, 2018

Products and Reviews

A look at Hot Topic’s Nickolodean eyeshadow palette
Allure.com

A look at Clinique and Marimekko’s lipstick collaboration
Allure.com

A look at ColourPop’s Lux Lipsticks
Allure.com

Anastasia Beverly Hills and Amra Olević to launch Gold AmRezy Highlighter
TeenVogue.com

A look at Perfectionist Pro from Estee Lauder
Refinery29.com

A look at Urban Decay’s Holographic Collection
PopSugar.com

Khloe Kardashian is launching a beauty label, KOKO Collection
WMagazine.com

Lindsay Schallon reviews gel moisturizing socks
Glamour.com

A review of Son & Park’s Beauty Filter Cream Glow
Allure.com

A review of Sunday Riley Rapid Flash Brightening Serum
Allure.com

Bite Beauty launches Aquarius Astrology Lipstick
Allure.com

MAC Cosmetics and Nyma Tang collaborating on “Dream Red” lipstick
TeenVogue.com

Huda Beauty launches Bronze Sands Highlighter palette
TeenVogue.com

Nannette de Gaspé Launches Miss de Gaspe Dry Sheet Masks
Allure.com

Retailers and Brands

Tarte pulls its Hybrid Gel Foundation after people notice it’s just repackaged Shape Tape Foundation
Narcity.com

CoverGirl rebranding with #IAmWhatIMakeup campaign
Allure.com

Amazon’s luxury beauty sales grew an estimated 47% in 2017
Fool.com

Unilever ventures acquires minority stake in microbiome beauty brand Gallinée
UnileverVentures.com

Nail polish brand names shade after racial slur
TheSource.com

Beauty Bakerie’s plan to make a more inclusive beauty brand
Allure.com

California Walmart under controversy for locking up “ethnic” haircare products
TeenVogue.com

Essie Grundy to sue Walmart for locking up its “ethnic” haircare products
BET.com, Independent.co.uk

Class-action lawsuit accuses Ulta of selling used makeup
CourtHouseNews.com

IT Cosmetics responds to limited Bye Bye Foundation shade offerings
Allure.com

Amazon now carrying Gigi Hadid’s Maybelline collection
Allure.com

Fenty Beauty on track to outsell Kylie Cosmetics and KKW Beauty
TeenVogue.com, Elle.com, Allure.com

Skincare and Beauty

“8 things I did to clear up the worst breakout of my life in one week” by Kristina Rodulfo
Elle.com

13 water-based gel moisturizers recommended by Allure
Allure.com

6 Swedish beauty labels recommended by Vogue
Vogue.com

What does “Gynecologist-tested” mean?
Refinery29.com

A dermatologist explains the skincare benefits of mineral oil
Refinery29.com

11 sunscreens recommended by Elle
Elle.com

Pressed serums recommended by Allure
Allure.com

An overview of skincare acids from Refinery29
Refinery29.uk

Celebrities and Interviews

An interview with Covergirl ambassador Maye Musk
Elle.com

Gigi and Bella Hadid’s airport beauty routines
Vogue.com

An interview with celebrity esthetician Angela Caglia
WMagazine.com

Researchers and dermatologists share their skincare tips
Elle.com

Asia and World

Twice’s Chaeyoung and Nayeon share their beauty routines
Allure.com

“Cloudless skin” explained by Liah Yoo
Allure.com

Lisa Niven gives an overview of some Japanese beauty brands
Vogue.co.uk

A look at 8 influential beauty bloggers from China
JingDaily.com

Kao set to top record profit forecast for 2017
Nikkei.com

Japan’s cosmetics industry coming off another bumper year
Nikkei.com

Vietnam’s cosmetics imports double to $6 billion USD
VietnamNet.vn

Research and Innovation

Sunscreen and melanoma prevention: evidence and expectations
British Journal of Dermatology

Efficacy and adverse events of oral isotretinoin for acne: a systematic review
British Journal of Dermatology

A profile of Propionibacterium acnes resistance and sensitivity at a tertiary dermatological centre in Singapore
British Journal of Dermatology

Light therapies for acne: abridged Cochrane systematic review including GRADE assessments
British Journal of Dermatology

Acne and hidradenitis suppurativa
British Journal of Dermatology

A topical treatment containing heat-treated Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 reduces Staphylococcus aureus adhesion and induces antimicrobial peptide expression in an in vitro reconstructed human epidermis model
British Journal of Dermatology

Analysis of ultraviolet radiation wavelengths causing hardening and reduced elasticity of collagen gels in vitro
Cosmetics

The influence of exposome on acne
JEADV

Assessment of the general quality of sunscreen products available in Palestine and method verification of the sun protection factor using Food and Drug Administration guidelines
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

A study of androgenic signs and disorders in Greek female patients with acne
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

Seasonal changes in epidermal ceramides are linked to impaired barrier function in acne patients
Experimental Dermatology

Examination of the skin barrier repair/wound healing process using a living skin equivalent (LSE) model and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI)
International Journal of Cosmetic Science

LEDs in dermatology: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials
Lasers in Surgery and Medicine

Circadian time effects on NB-UVB–induced erythema in human skin in vivo
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Persistence and tolerance of DNA damage induced by chronic UVB irradiation of the human genome
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Phenotype and antimicrobial activity of Th17 cells induced by Propionibacterium acnes strains associated with healthy and acne skin
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Comparative efficacy of two anti-aging products containing retinyl palmitate in healthy human volunteers
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

Efficacy of a corticosteroid-free, 5% hyaluronic-based facial cream in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. A proof-of-concept study
Journal of Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research

Equol’s anti-aging effects protect against environmental assaults by increasing skin antioxidant defense and ECM proteins while decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation
Cosmetics

Resveratrol inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of keloid fibroblasts by targeting HIF-1α
Journal of Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research

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