A quick look at collagen

Collagen, you’ve seen it in your skincare products and have probably eaten it at some point (Yay for artificially-coloured and jiggly gelatin). But what is it?

Collagen is composed of a triple helix, three strands of proteins made up of joined amino acids wrapped around each other. The main amino acid constituents of these proteins are glycine, proline, hydroxyproline, lysine, and hydroxylysine. The unique chemical structure of the amino acids helps form the shape and structure that their compounds make.

There are many types of collagen, which differ in their amino acid composition. Type I collagen is the most abundant in the human body, and Type I, III, IV, and others are found in our skin. In our body, multiple strands of collagen are found bundled together in fibrils.

You may have heard that ascorbic acid or Vitamin C is crucial in the formation of collagen, but how? Ascorbic acid is used in the conversion of proline to hydroxyproline along with oxygen, and alpha-ketoglutarate. The reaction is catalyzed or sped up by the enzyme prolyl hydroxylase and an iron. Similarly, it is needed in the hydroxylation of lysine to hydroxylysine by the enzyme lysyl hydroxylase.

Collagens are naturally glycosylated, meaning they have sugar molecules bound to them – they are found attached to the lysine and hydroxylysine molecules by the enzymes galactosyltransferase and glucosyltransferase. While this glycosylation is not fully understood, they seem important in forming and retaining the structure of the collagen. You may have heard of glycation or advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), this happens when excessive sugar molecules are bound to the collagen non-enzymatically and can affect its structure, function, and flexibility.

The additional -OH (hydroxy) group on the hydroxyproline helps water molecules bind tightly to collagen. The coiled structure of collagen’s triple helix gives it impressive tensile strength and allows it to stretch when forces are applied. When too much force is applied the triple helix structure can become disorganized and damaged, no longer able to return to its triple helix form.

Experiments, where collagen was exposed to UV radiation in vitro, have shown that free radicals generated from the UV energy can cleave or break apart some of the bonds holding the amino acids together. When enough bonds are broken the triple helix structure can no longer be maintained and the collagen fibre loses its shape and function. Adding ascorbic acid to the solution of collagen, when it was exposed to UV, reduced some of the free radicals produced – leading to fewer bonds breaking and structure disruption. This may highlight one of the ways naturally present antioxidants in the skin help us defend against the environment.

N. Metreveli, L. Namicheishvili, K. Jariashvili, G. Mrevlishvili, A. Sionkowska. Mechanisms of the influence of UV irradiation on collagen and collagen-ascorbic acid solutions. International Journal of Photoenergy (2006), DOI: 10.1155/IJP/2006/76830

Duer Research Group. Collagen glycation and diabetes. Website, URL: https://www.ch.cam.ac.uk/group/duer/research/collagen-glycation-and-diabetes

A. Masic, L. Bertinetti, R. Schuetz, S.W. Chang, T.H. Metzger, M.J. Buehler, P. Fratzl. Osmotic pressure induced tensile forces in tendon collagen. Nature Communications (2015), DOI: 10.1038/ncomms6942

J.M. Waller, H.I. Maibach. ge and skin structure and function, a quantitativeapproach (II): protein, glycosaminoglycan, water, andlipid content and structure. Skin Research and Technology (2006), DOI: 10.1111/j.0909-752X.2006.00146.x

#BeautyRecap: September 18th, 2018

Products and Reviews

Allure announces the 2018 Best of Beauty winners
Allure.com

KKW Beauty announces Cherry Blossom makeup collection
Allure.com

A look at the Wet n Wild Fantasy Makers Halloween makeup collection
Allure.com, TeenVogue.com

A review of the Summer Fridays Overtime Mask
TeenVogue.com

OPI brings back 9 “Fan Favourite” shades of nail polish
Byrdie.com

a look at the Kylie x Jordyn Makeup Collection
Allure.com, TeenVogue.com

MAC to launch Powder Kiss moisturizing matte lipsticks in October 2018
Allure.com

A comparison of the new Glossier Perfecting Skin Tint with the old formula
Allure.com

A look at Madbeauty’s Disney Villain sheet masks
TeenVogue.com

A review of the Megababe Rosy Pits natural deodorant
Glamour.com

A look at the 2018 Too Faced Holiday makeup collection
Allure.com

Too Faced launches Better Than Sex mascara vault
TeenVogue.com

6 beauty products recommended by Elle Canada
ElleCanada.com

12 luxury moisturizers recommended by Allure
Allure.com

8 acne patches recommended by Glamour
Glamour.com

9 drugstore highlighters recommended by Allure
Allure.com

9 liquid eyeshadows recommended by Allure
Allure.com

Products recommended for the Summer to Fall transition by David Yi
VeryGoodLight.com

Foundations for people with yellow and golden undertones recommended by Allure
Allure.com

Retailers and Trends

So who’s winning the Korean beauty e-commerce war? by Kai Proschan
VeryGoodLight.com

Rihanna celebrates 1 year anniversary of Fenty Beauty
TeenVogue.com, Allure.com

A look at Eco + Amour, a low-waste beauty store in Toronto
CosmeticsDesign.com

The Detox Market opens in New York
Vogue.com

A look at the effect Fenty Beauty has had on the makeup industry
Glamour.com

Gucci Beauty launches an Instagram account
Elle.com

Skincare and Beauty

Is an FDA crackdown on probiotic products coming? by Brittany Burhop Fallon
NewBeauty.com

Allergan acquires Bonti makers of a shorter-acting neuromodulator EB-001
NewBeauty.com

Coconut oil for acne? Learn how it can help clear your skin by Sable Yong
TeenVogue.com

What’s the deal with beauty ampoules? by Victoria DiPlacido
ElleCanada.com

The truth about drinking collagen supplements for better skin by Kaleigh Fasanella
Allure.com

Sarah Kinonen details her experience at the Tata Harper Spa in France
Allure.com

New Mexico officials warning people who received PRP at a clinic to get tested for bloodborne diseases
TeenVogue.com, Allure.com, NewBeauty.com

Emily Amick walks through many different types of mascara
Allure.com

These “salt and pepper” lash extensions are Instagram’s unexpected way to get fuller-looking lashes by Devon Abelman
Allure.com

Everything you need to know before you make an eyelash extension appointment by Chloe Hall
Elle.com

A beauty lover’s guide to the Lower East Side by Victoria DiPlacido
ElleCanada.com

Male student gets suspended from high school for wearing makeup
TeenVogue.com

Celebrities and Interviews

An interview with Sonoya Mizuno about beauty ideals
Glamour.com

Lili Reinhart talks about how acne can trigger her body dysmorphia
TeenVogue.com

BareMinerals taps Hailey Baldwin and Rosie Huntington-Whiteley as new faces
Elle.com, TeenVogue.com

Joey King shares her beauty routine for TIFF 2018
TeenVogue.com

Aly Raisman, Jackie Aina walked a makeup-free runway show for Olay
Elle.com, Glamour.com

Jack McCollough and Lazaro Hernandez of Proenza Schouler talk about their collaboration with Lancome
Allure.com

Rowan Blanchard says wearing makeup is “a costume”
TeenVogue.com

An interview with Dreamcatcher
Allure.com

Companies and Outreach

Faber-Castell to open facility in Illinois
CosmeticsDesign.com

Huda Kattan ‘not interested’ in an IPO
ArabianBusiness.com

Shiseido CEO Masahiko Uotani explains why the cosmetics giant buys start-ups
CNBC.com

Research and Technology

Sunscreen use and melanoma risk among young Australian adults
JAMA Dermatology

Evaluation of a brief dermatologist-delivered intervention vs usual care on sun protection behavior
JAMA Dermatology

A comparison of tanning habits among gym tanners and other tanners
JAMA Dermatology

Characteristics and skin cancer risk behaviors of us adult sunless tanners
JAMA Dermatology

Facial-aging app availability in waiting rooms as a potential opportunity for skin cancer prevention
JAMA Dermatology

Association between Mediterranean anti-inflammatory dietary profile and severity of psoriasis
JAMA Dermatology

Variation in daily ultraviolet light exposure and sun protection behaviours of melanoma survivors: an observational single-arm pilot study with a wearable sensor
BJD

Short‐term exposure of human sebocytes to 13‐cis‐retinoic acid induces acnegenic changes
BJD

An explanation for the mysterious distribution of melanin in human skin: a rare example of asymmetric (melanin) organelle distribution during mitosis of basal layer progenitor keratinocytes
BJD

Adverse cutaneous reactions to skin care products on the face vary with age, but not with sex
Contact Dermatitis

Melanoma-prone families: new evidence of distinctive clinical and histological features of melanomas in CDKN2A mutation carriers
Archives of Dermatological Research

Spironolactone depletes the XPB protein and inhibits DNA damage responses in UVB-irradiated human skin
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Associations among two vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms (ApaI and TaqI) in acne vulgaris: A pilot susceptibility study
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

Combination chemical peels are more effective than single chemical peel in treatment of mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris: A split-face comparative clinical trial
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

Anti‐inflammatory and antiradical effects of a 2% diosmin cream in a human skin organ culture as model
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

Clinical and confocal evaluation of avenanthramides-based daily cleansing and emollient cream in pediatric population affected by atopic dermatitis and xerosis
Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia

Comparative evaluation between two nutritional supplements in the improvement of telogen effluvium
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology

Polymorphisms in P53 and VEGFA genes in different subtypes of periorbital hyperpigmentation in a Malaysian Chinese population
Australasian Journal of Dermatology

Calprotectin can play an inflammatory role in acne vulgaris
Advances in Dermatology and Allergology

Impact of inorganic UV filters contained in sunscreen products on tropical stony corals (Acropora spp.)
Science of the Total Environment

Low dose stingless bee honey increases viability of human dermal fibroblasts that could potentially promote wound healing
Wound Medicine

A frog cathelicidin peptide effectively promotes cutaneous wound healing in mice
Biochemical Journal

The enzyme lysozyme and xanthan gum

These are crystals of lysozyme, an enzyme which can break apart cell wall peptidoglycan of certain bacteria. It is part of our and other animals’ immune systems. Lysozyme is more effective against gram-positive bacteria, as gram-negative bacteria have additional cell membranes that make it harder for the lysozyme to reach the peptidoglycan.

Lysozyme is often used in the processing of xanthan gum. Xanthomonas campestris, a gram-negative bacteria, produce an exopolysaccharide which is a gooey, thick, and sticky slime. This slime may help the bacteria create a comfortable environment for itself and also act as camouflage from other organism’s immune systems.

The slime (aka xanthan gum) is used in cosmetics because it imparts viscosity, lubricity, and acts as a humectant water-binding film former. It also increases the yield stress of water, meaning things suspended in it don’t settle as fast. “Raw” xanthan gum can resemble snot and be cloudy.

In a series of processing steps, the Xanthomonas campestris’ cells are stripped of their membranes and broken apart – this can be done by heating in alkaline water then by treatment with lysozyme and protease. The xanthan gum becomes less gloopy and crystal clear.

Lysozyme can be sourced from a variety of things, but most commonly hen egg whites. It’s not often clear what the source of lysozyme is, so depending on the transparency of the supplier, it’s possible that products labelled ‘Vegan’ may have used animal lysozyme treated xanthan gum.

Plant-based lysozymes do exist, but their structures and functions often differ from animal lysozymes. Genetically modified organisms have been created to produce lysozymes more closely resembling animal lysozymes, but GMOs can be an issue for those who choose vegan products.

I first encountered this conundrum during a meeting with a supplier when they were promoting their vegan xanthan gum, which was slightly less clear than their regular grades. I’d always assumed xanthan gum was vegan, since it was made from bacteria. Sadly, the product line has been discontinued, but one of the largest chemical companies in the world recently launched a clear vegan xanthan gum that’s also GMO-free.

To see more images of lysozyme crystals, check out Dr. Kalju Kahn’s gallery created by students at UCSB.

#BeautyRecap: September 11th, 2018

Products and Reviews

Drew Barrymore’s Flower Beauty launches skincare product Supernova Celestial Skin Elixir
Allure.com

A look at Fluide, a makeup brand focused on inclusion
Allure.com

Kylie Cosmetics launches individual eyeshadow pans
TeenVogue.com, Allure.com

Maybelline launches Color Sensational Made for All lipsticks
Elle.com

Charlotte Tilbury expands Pillow Talk range with eyeshadow palette and blush
Allure.com

Clarisonic launches the Mia Smart with skin tracking features
Allure.com

Maybelline launches Tattoo Studio Brow Pomade
Allure.com

Christian Louboutin launches Tape à l’Oeil cream eyeshadows
Elle.com

Huda Beauty launches five eyeshadow palettes based on precious stones
Allure.com

Glossier launches its Zit Stick
Glamour.com, TeenVogue.com

MAC expands Studio Fix Fluid shade range to 60
Glamour.com, TeenVogue.com

Camila Coelho partners with Lancome to launch a lipstick collection
Elle.com, Glamour.com

A look at Thrive Causemetic’s vegan Buildable Blur CC cream
Glamour.com

Swivel hair app launches to connect women of colour with hairstylists
Elle.com

Summer Fridays launches its Overtime Mask
Allure.com, TeenVogue.com

Urban Decay launching a Naked Cherry makeup collection
Allure.com, Glamour.com, TeenVogue.com

Revlon and Refinery29 partner on ‘Make Your Mark’ lipsticks
AdAge.com

Tom Ford’s Cardi B lipsticks sold out in a day
Complex.com, Elle.com

MAC partners with Brandon Maxwell on a makeup collection
Allure.com

Ever launches Pretty Young Trio skincare range
Glossy.co

Shu Uemura partners with luxury chocolatier La Maison Du Chocolat on makeup collaboration
Elle.com

19 cruelty-free makeup brushes selected by Allure
Allure.com

Best new makeup launches this September selected by Allure
Allure.com

Retailers and Trends

California moves closer to banning animal testing for cosmetics by 2020
Fortune.com, Allure.com

More teens getting cosmetic procedures done because of social media pressures, according to study
WCVB

Clorox to disclose ingredients in over 350 of its disinfectant products
Bloomberg.com

Skincare and Beauty

Rihanna and Fenty to host a makeup class in Dubai
TeenVogue.com

An interview with Mackenzie Ziegler about Love, Kenzie, her makeup line
TeenVogue.com

Rihanna’s makeup artist Priscilla Ono shares beauty tips and product recommendations
Refinery29.com

What is Bakuchiol? Experts explain the benefits of the natural alternative to retinol by Macaela Mackenzie
Allure.com

How a Canadian company is turning fish guts into facial products
TheWeatherNetwork.com

How to wear blush if you have rosacea by Kaleigh Fasanella
Allure.com

How the seasons affect your skin by Kaleigh Fasanella
Allure.com

The “Space where women felt anything but good” needed disrupting by Ruby Buddemeyer
Elle.com

Gwyneth Paltrow’s Goop will pay $145,000 USD for making unscientific claims about its vaginal healing egg
Elle.com

Do you really need to be using toner? by Chloe Hall
Elle.com

Celebrities and Interviews

An interview with Jaclyn Hill about paid sponsorship and the beauty community
Allure.com

A look at Gigi Hadid’s skincare routine
TeenVogue.com

Megan Markle’s makeup artist uses Aquaphor instead of highlighter
TeenVogue.com

Interviews and profiles of 5 models with freckles
Vogue.com

Global

Shares of Japanese cosmetic brands drop after typhoon Jebi
Bloomberg.com

Moonshot collaborates with actress Yoo In Na for a new lipstick
AllKPop.com

Electric Ink Tattoo Care launches in South Korea despite controversy
CosmeticsDesign-Asia.com

Cosmetics sold via cross-border e-commerce to face more regulations in China
CosmeticsDesign-Asia.com

China’s FDA recalls skin care product by a Shiseido-backed manufacturer

Miniso plans expansion into Dublin
TheTimes.co.uk

China tariffs on cosmetics: Estée Lauder mindful but confident impact will be minimal
CosmeticsDesign-Asia.com

An interview with Xie Chaoyu, the face of Chinese makeup brand Marie Dalgar
Wersm.com

More men in China are using cosmetics
China.org.cn

20 ‘unsafe’ products withdrawn from the UAE market
KhaleejTimes.com

Nykaa Luxe flagship store opens at the Chanakya
IndiaRetailing.com

Cosmoprof India edition takes off in Mumbai, brings over 90 cosmetics brands together
MoneyControl.com

Companies and Outreach

Pat McGrath Labs receives $60 million USD investment from Eurazeo Brands
BusinessofFashion.com

Nathalie Gerschtein announced as new president Maybelline, Garnier and Essie
GlobalCosmeticsNews.com

Nuvisan to take over part of Nestle/Galderma’s research
Outsourcing-Pharma.com

Núria Perez-Cullell appointed to the position of CEO at Pierre Fabre
Pierre-Fabre.com

The Hut Group buys beauty products maker Acheson & Acheson
FT.com

Research and Technology

Predictions, surprises, and the future of the dermatology workforce
JAMA Dermatology

Fragrance exposure in the U.K.: has there been a change in the last decade?
BJD

Platelet-rich plasma for skin rejuvenation: A systematic review of the clinical evidence
JAAD

Effect of red light and near-infrared laser on the generation of reactive oxygen species in primary dermal fibroblasts

Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology

Current concepts in acne pathogenesis: Pathways to inflammation
Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery

Treating acne in adult women
Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery

Treating acne in patients with skin of color
Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery

Estimation of dermal absorption parameters of cleaning chemical ingredients
Journal of Chemical Health and Safety

Development of a skin-friendly microemulsion for dermal allergen-specific immunotherapy
International Journal of Pharmaceutics

Novel facial cream containing carnosine inhibits formation of advanced glycation end-products in human skin
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology

Visualization of zinc pyrithione particles deposited on the scalp from a shampoo by tape strip sampling and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy measurement
International Journal of Cosmetic Science

Evaluating age‐related changes of some facial signs among men of four different ethnic groups
International Journal of Cosmetic Science

Aesthetic dermatology: What’s new, what’s true?
Dermatologic Therapy

Helianthus annuus L. flower prevents UVB‐induced photodamage in human dermal fibroblasts by regulating the MAPK/AP‐1, NFAT, and Nrf2 signaling pathways
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry

Tolerability and efficacy of a medical device repairing emollient cream in adults with chronic hand dermatitis
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

Ethyl 2,4-dicarboethoxy pantothenate, a derivative of pantothenic acid, prevents cellular damage initiated by environmental pollutants through Nrf2 activation
Journal of Dermatological Science

Adverse effects of fillers
Dermatologic Therapy

Profile of the skin microbiota in a healthy Chinese population
The Journal of Dermatology

“Over the Internet” sale of prescription‐level topical corticosteroids and dilemma of dermatologists
International Journal of Dermatology

Age-related and seasonal changes in covalently bound ceramide content in forearm stratum corneum of Japanese subjects: determination of molecular species of ceramides
Archives of Dermatological Research

Orally administered polysaccharide derived from blackcurrants (Ribes nigrum l.) Improves skin hydration in ultraviolet-irradiated hairless mice
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology

Ranking skin‐sensitizing hair dye molecules according to their potency by the use of human cells

Contact Dermatitis

Effects of supplementary seleno-l-methionine on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin

Can I take my normal painkillers doctor? Therapeutic management of pain following dermatological procedures
Australasian Journal of Dermatology

The role of nutrition in inflammatory pilosebaceous disorders: Implication of the skin-gut axis
The Australasian Journal of Dermatology

Therapeutic effects of bee venom and its major component, melittin, on atopic dermatitis in vivo and in vitro
British Journal of Pharmacology

Development of an effective and safe topical anti-inflammatory gel containing Jatropha gossypiifolia leaf extract: results from a pre-clinical trial in mice
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

#BeautyRecap: September 4th, 2018

Research and Technology

Protection of glucotoxicity by a tripeptide derivative of α‐melanocyte‐stimulating hormone in human epidermal keratinocytes
BJD

Skin type differences in solar simulated radiation ‐induced oxidative stress
BJD

Are bacteria transplants the future of eczema therapy?
JAMA

Correlates of positive parental attitudes toward indoor tanning
JAAD

Improving stratum corneum cell cohesion and skin appearance through an advanced ultramild lamellar cleanser comprising dual lipids with triglycerides and glyceryl monooleate
JAAD

Combined treatment of striae using calcium hydroxylapatite, ascorbic acid delivered by microneedling, and microfocused ultrasound
JAAD

Effectiveness of a nature-based sensitive skin regimen (NBSSR) compared with a synthetic dermatologist-recommended control regimen (CR) in subjects with clinically diagnosed sensitive skin
JAAD

Differential facial esthetic treatment considerations for African-American, Asian, and Hispanic skin color populations
JAAD

Stigmatizing attitudes toward persons with psoriasis among laypersons and medical students
JAAD

Characteristic features of neck skin aging in Chinese women
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

Two‐phase delivery using a horse oil and adenosine‐loaded dissolving microneedle patch for skin barrier restoration, moisturization, and wrinkle improvement
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

Effects of four soaps on skin trans‐epidermal water loss and erythema index
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

A comprehensive in vivo study of Caucasian facial skin parameters on 442 women
Archives of Dermatological Research

Capacitive imaging for skin characterizations and solvent penetration measurements
Cosmetics

Vaccinating against Acne: Benefits and potential pitfalls
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Use of “natural” oils for moisturization: Review of olive, coconut, and sunflower seed oil
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

#BeautyRecap: August 29th, 2018

Research and Technology

Topical trifarotene: a new retinoid
BJD

Tanning addiction: conceptualization, assessment and correlates
BJD

Multiethnic comparison of facial skin aging
JAAD

Scalp photodamage in balding men: An observational study combining a novel clinical scoring method with estimation of individual sun exposure history and risk factors
JAAD

Aspirin use and the risk of malignant melanoma
JAAD

Superior even skin tone and antiaging benefit of combination of 4-hexyl resorcinol and niacinamide
JAAD

Sensitive skin compatibility of cleansing wipes
JAAD

Vitamin C and its derivatives suppress melanogenesis through acidification in melanocytes
JID

Air pollution, autophagy and skin aging
JID

The effects of a natural derived fragrance on skin conditions via controlling the autonomic nerve system
JID

Repeated exposure to hard water and surfactant impairs epidermal barrier development in vitro
JID

An aqueous extract of Deschampsia antarctica (EDA) exerts clear protective effects on human skin cell against dioxins treatments
JID

Effect of palmitoyl-RGD on the expression of dermal-epidermal junction component in HaCaT
JID

Anti-aging effect of EGF-DOTAP complex on human skin
JID

MMP genes and oxidative stress play a role in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced skin-damage
JID

Lantibiotics from human skin commensal bacteria defend against multiple Gram-positive bacterial skin pathogens
JID

Assessment of a newly developed environmental aggressor protection serum (LV-D)
JID

Topical application of a new blend of antioxidants reduces oxidative stress and induces mitochondrial activity in 3D cell culture skin model
JID

Noninvasive imaging of UV-induced oxidative stress in human skin using ultra-weak photon emission
JID

Protection and repair of skin damage from environmental aggressor: UV radiation
JID

In-vitro and in-vivo evaluation of skin lightening efficacy of cytidine
JID

Skin care and rejuvenation by cosmeceutical facial mask
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

The role of systemic treatments for skin lightening
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

Facial microfiber tissue with plant extracts: A new cosmetic concept shows whitening efficacy in Asian volunteers
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

Therapeutic effects of bee venom on experimental atopic dermatitis
Molecular Medicine Reports