#BeautyRecap: November 13th, 2018

Products and Reviews

Lush Cosmetics teams up with RuPaul’s Drag Race queens for its Merry DRAGmas campaign
HelloGiggles.com

A review of the Kopari Coconut deodorant during a marathon
Elle.com

Kylie Cosmetics to launch in Ulta, in time for the holidays
Allure.com

Artis is launching customized makeup brushes in their Bespoke range
Elle.com

MAC and Patrick Starr to launch a holiday makeup collaboration
Allure.com

Dr Almas Ahmed hopes to develop Acarrier, a cosmetic additive to help prevent acid attacks
INews.co.uk

A review of the Bumble and Bumble BB Glitter finishing spray
TeenVogue.com

A look at the Too Faced Gingerbread Spice eyeshadow palette on different skintones
TeenVogue.com

A review of VDL Cosmetics’ Metal Cushion Primer
Refinery29.com

A look at the MAKE Marine Salves blushes
NewBeauty.com

Kylie Cosmetics created a custom lip kit for Travis Scott’s Astroworld tour
TeenVogue.com

Dollar Shave Club dabbles in fine fragrance with men’s fragrance Blueprint and vending machines
AdAge.com

Sheer lipsticks and lip balms recommended by Teen Vogue
TeenVogue.com

Makeup artists recommend their favourite setting sprays
Elle.com

10 acne products recommended by Teen Vogue
TeenVogue.com

Vogue Australia’s beauty tips for the summer
Vogue.com.au

16 products recommended by SHEN Beauty’s Jessica Richards
NewBeauty.com

Retailers, Brands, and Trends

US FDA requests comments on new consumer survey about allergens in cosmetics
FDA.gov

“For skincare brands, urban pollution is good for business”
QZ.com

Cannabis being used in makeup products is on the rise
Independent.co.uk

Coty announces new CEO, Pierre Laubies, and shifts corporate focus to financials
Coty.com

Garnier goes organic in L’Oreal’s bid to lift mass market sales
Reuters.com

Canada’s Cake Beauty to launch in the US at Rite Aid
PRNewswire.com

Revlon jumps as investors embrace beauty giant’s slim-down plans
BloombergQuint.com

Glossier launches two-story New York flagship retail space
Forbes.com

South Korean brand Cremorlab launches in Poland
YonhapNews.co.kr

Shiseido to form a Philippine unit with Singapore’s Luxasia
ABS-CBN.com

Drew Barrymore’s Flower Beauty is coming to Australia in January 2019
Vogue.com.au

“Why US FDA approval of cosmetics may not be necessary”
DermatologyTimes.com

Health Canada links cosmetics colourant solvent Violet 13 exposure to possible cancer risk
ChemicalWatch.com, Canada.ca, EC.GC.ca, Gazette.GC.ca, ECHA.Europa.eu

EU publishes revised guidance on cosmetic ingredients testing
ChemicalWatch.com, EC.Europa.eu

Skincare and Beauty

“Why vanity and selfie stigma is stupid”
Allure.com

“How I learned to embrace aging through mirror meditation”
Allure.com

Why inclusivity in the drugstore makeup aisle is important
Allure.com

A look at semi-permanent BB cream and whether its safe or recommended
Allure.com

Charlotte Tilbury shares the makeup she used during this year’s Victoria’s Secret Show
TeenVogue.com, Elle.com

11 Victoria’s Secret models share where they get the best facials
Elle.com

A look at newer skincare treatments geared specifically to people of colour
MarieClaire.com

Nam Vo gives tips on applying setting powder with a small brush
Allure.com

Three celebrity makeup artists give tips on building a makeup kit
Elle.com

Blush application tips from makeup artists
Allure.com

A look at witch hazel’s use in skincare
Elle.com

Endo announces positive results from trials of its cellulite-reducing injection
NewBeauty.com

New psoriasis drug, Bryhali, approved by the US FDA
Allure.com

A look at tranexamic acid, an ingredient for treating hyperpigmentation
Vogue.com

Dermatologists recommend treatments for post-summer hyperpigmentation
NewBeauty.com

Celebrities and Interviews

Victoria’s Secret executive Ed Razek talks about why their shows are not more inclusive
Vogue.com

An interview with Tiffany Young about beauty and K-Pop
Allure.com

Real Housewives of New Jersey star Teresa Giudice’s beauty Routine costs $22,077
Glamour.com

Research and Technology

Effect of platelet-rich plasma injection for rejuvenation of photoaged facial skin
JAMA Dermatology

Platelet-rich plasma with microneedling and trichloroacetic acid peel for treatment of striae distensae
JAAD

Photodynamic inactivation of bacteria to decolonize meticillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus from human skin
BJD

Short contact with nickel causes allergic contact dermatitis
BJD

Quantitative sensory testing in patients with sensitive skin
BJD

An evaluation of the effects of makeup on perceived age based on skin color in Korean women
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

Raman characterization of human skin aging
Skin Research and Technology

Effect of spraying of fine water particles on facial skin moisture and viscoelasticity in adult women
Skin Research and Technology

Cosmetic benefit of a biomimetic lamellar cream formulation on barrier function or the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles in randomised proof‐of‐concept clinical studies
International Journal of Cosmetic Science

Reduction in human hair graying by sterubin, an active flavonoid of Eriodictyon angustifolium
Journal of Dermatological Science

Lentigines formation in Caucasian women – interaction between particulate matter and solar ultraviolet radiation
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

The calcium-sensing receptor regulates epidermal intracellular Ca2+ signaling and re-epithelialization after wounding
Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Use of lasers in wound healing: How to best utilize laser technology to prevent scar formation
Current Dermatology Reports

The increase of interfollicular epidermal stem cells and regulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor and its repressors in the skin through hydroporation with anti-aging cocktail
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

Efficacy of platelet‐rich plasma in androgenetic alopecia patients
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology

ZnO:SBA-15 nanocomposites for potential use in sunscreen: Preparation, properties, human skin penetration and toxicity
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology

In vivo human skin penetration of the UV filter ethylhexyl triazone: Effect of lipid microparticle encapsulation
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology

Allergic contact dermatitis to hydroperoxides of limonene and dose‐response relationship – a repeated open application test (ROAT) study
Contact Dermatitis

Pulsed‐dye laser as a novel therapeutic approach for post‐filler bruises
Dermatologic Therapy

Mitochondrial dysfunction in affected skin and increased mitochondrial DNA in serum from patients with psoriasis
Experimental Dermatology

Detection of fluid secretion of three‐dimensional reconstructed eccrine sweat glands by magnetic resonance imaging
Experimental Dermatology

Tabernaemontana catharinensis leaves effectively reduce the irritant contact dermatitis by glucocorticoid receptor-dependent pathway in mice
Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy

P66: a small molecule therapeutic against atopic dermatitis and UV‐induced skin cancer
Internal Medicine Journal

Evaluation of the phytochemical composition, antimicrobial and anti-radical activities of Mitracarpus scaber (Rubiaceae)
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research

Paperview: Sunscreen application to the face persists beyond 2 hours in indoor workers

What happens to your sunscreen throughout a work day? I often get this question, especially from people who work inside for most of the day. A group of researchers at Mahidol University in Thailand did an experiment that may provide us with some guidance.

The researchers took 20 people (15 women) with mostly skin phototype III and up. Skin phototype III means that they tan, but sometimes get mild burns.

The participants were asked to apply 1 gram of sunscreen to their face. The sunscreen was mixed with a blue fluorescent dye that would glow under UV light. This glow allowed the researchers to see the sunscreen on the skin and note changes in its brightness throughout the day.

The people only wore the sunscreen and were asked not to reapply. They weren’t allowed to use makeup or other skincare. They were also allowed up to 1 hour outside. The temperature outside was between 23 and 35 degrees Celsius throughout the day and described as humid. The indoor condition was inside the air conditioned Siriraj Hospital.

Every 2 hours, the researchers took a photo of the people and measured the glow of the sunscreen under a UV light. They looked at the cheeks, forehead, nose, moustache area, and the chin. They used a Visia device to help make sure the photos were consistent.

Sunscreen brightness reduction every 2 hours by percent. The bars indicate the range in measurement values.

The researchers found that the fluorescent glow on the people’s faces decreased the most in the first 2 hours after applying the sunscreen. On average the areas of the face were 16.3% less bright.

Between 2 hours and 4 hours after application, the brightness decreased by a further 7.4 percentage points on average. Between 4 hours and 8 hours, there was an average 4.5 percentage point decrease in brightness.

At the end of the day, there was about a 30% decrease in brightness on average compared to just after applying the sunscreen.

A 30% decrease in brightness in this experiment doesn’t necessarily mean a 30% decrease in sunscreen on the skin. There are ways to model this more accurately, but they did not have the tools in this experiment.

So what does this mean for you? At the end of the day, you’ll still have to use your best judgement.

If you pigment easily, are very concerned about photoaging, or have a family history of skin cancer – I think the best recommendation is to be on the safe side and reapply at least once around 2 hours.

If don’t care that much, consider the opposite, about 70% of the glow from the sunscreen still remained after 8 hours.

In either case, that first application is important. I’d recommend choosing a sunscreen with a high SPF and UVA protection and aiming for a 2 mg/cm² layer. An easy way to make it more likely you’ve applied that amount is to apply your sunscreen in two layers.

Source: Rungananchai, C., Silpa-archa, N., Wongpraparut, C., Suiwongsa, B., Sangveraphunsiri, V., & Manuskiatti, W. (2018). Sunscreen Application to the Face Persists Beyond 2 Hours in Indoor Workers: An Open Label Trial. Journal of Dermatological Treatment, 1–14. doi: 10.1080/09546634.2018.1530440

A quick look at collagen

Collagen, you’ve seen it in your skincare products and have probably eaten it at some point (Yay for artificially-coloured and jiggly gelatin). But what is it?

Collagen is composed of a triple helix, three strands of proteins made up of joined amino acids wrapped around each other. The main amino acid constituents of these proteins are glycine, proline, hydroxyproline, lysine, and hydroxylysine. The unique chemical structure of the amino acids helps form the shape and structure that their compounds make.

There are many types of collagen, which differ in their amino acid composition. Type I collagen is the most abundant in the human body, and Type I, III, IV, and others are found in our skin. In our body, multiple strands of collagen are found bundled together in fibrils.

You may have heard that ascorbic acid or Vitamin C is crucial in the formation of collagen, but how? Ascorbic acid is used in the conversion of proline to hydroxyproline along with oxygen, and alpha-ketoglutarate. The reaction is catalyzed or sped up by the enzyme prolyl hydroxylase and an iron. Similarly, it is needed in the hydroxylation of lysine to hydroxylysine by the enzyme lysyl hydroxylase.

Collagens are naturally glycosylated, meaning they have sugar molecules bound to them – they are found attached to the lysine and hydroxylysine molecules by the enzymes galactosyltransferase and glucosyltransferase. While this glycosylation is not fully understood, they seem important in forming and retaining the structure of the collagen. You may have heard of glycation or advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), this happens when excessive sugar molecules are bound to the collagen non-enzymatically and can affect its structure, function, and flexibility.

The additional -OH (hydroxy) group on the hydroxyproline helps water molecules bind tightly to collagen. The coiled structure of collagen’s triple helix gives it impressive tensile strength and allows it to stretch when forces are applied. When too much force is applied the triple helix structure can become disorganized and damaged, no longer able to return to its triple helix form.

Experiments, where collagen was exposed to UV radiation in vitro, have shown that free radicals generated from the UV energy can cleave or break apart some of the bonds holding the amino acids together. When enough bonds are broken the triple helix structure can no longer be maintained and the collagen fibre loses its shape and function. Adding ascorbic acid to the solution of collagen, when it was exposed to UV, reduced some of the free radicals produced – leading to fewer bonds breaking and structure disruption. This may highlight one of the ways naturally present antioxidants in the skin help us defend against the environment.

N. Metreveli, L. Namicheishvili, K. Jariashvili, G. Mrevlishvili, A. Sionkowska. Mechanisms of the influence of UV irradiation on collagen and collagen-ascorbic acid solutions. International Journal of Photoenergy (2006), DOI: 10.1155/IJP/2006/76830

Duer Research Group. Collagen glycation and diabetes. Website, URL: https://www.ch.cam.ac.uk/group/duer/research/collagen-glycation-and-diabetes

A. Masic, L. Bertinetti, R. Schuetz, S.W. Chang, T.H. Metzger, M.J. Buehler, P. Fratzl. Osmotic pressure induced tensile forces in tendon collagen. Nature Communications (2015), DOI: 10.1038/ncomms6942

J.M. Waller, H.I. Maibach. ge and skin structure and function, a quantitativeapproach (II): protein, glycosaminoglycan, water, andlipid content and structure. Skin Research and Technology (2006), DOI: 10.1111/j.0909-752X.2006.00146.x

The enzyme lysozyme and xanthan gum

These are crystals of lysozyme, an enzyme which can break apart cell wall peptidoglycan of certain bacteria. It is part of our and other animals’ immune systems. Lysozyme is more effective against gram-positive bacteria, as gram-negative bacteria have additional cell membranes that make it harder for the lysozyme to reach the peptidoglycan.

Lysozyme is often used in the processing of xanthan gum. Xanthomonas campestris, a gram-negative bacteria, produce an exopolysaccharide which is a gooey, thick, and sticky slime. This slime may help the bacteria create a comfortable environment for itself and also act as camouflage from other organism’s immune systems.

The slime (aka xanthan gum) is used in cosmetics because it imparts viscosity, lubricity, and acts as a humectant water-binding film former. It also increases the yield stress of water, meaning things suspended in it don’t settle as fast. “Raw” xanthan gum can resemble snot and be cloudy.

In a series of processing steps, the Xanthomonas campestris’ cells are stripped of their membranes and broken apart – this can be done by heating in alkaline water then by treatment with lysozyme and protease. The xanthan gum becomes less gloopy and crystal clear.

Lysozyme can be sourced from a variety of things, but most commonly hen egg whites. It’s not often clear what the source of lysozyme is, so depending on the transparency of the supplier, it’s possible that products labelled ‘Vegan’ may have used animal lysozyme treated xanthan gum.

Plant-based lysozymes do exist, but their structures and functions often differ from animal lysozymes. Genetically modified organisms have been created to produce lysozymes more closely resembling animal lysozymes, but GMOs can be an issue for those who choose vegan products.

I first encountered this conundrum during a meeting with a supplier when they were promoting their vegan xanthan gum, which was slightly less clear than their regular grades. I’d always assumed xanthan gum was vegan, since it was made from bacteria. Sadly, the product line has been discontinued, but one of the largest chemical companies in the world recently launched a clear vegan xanthan gum that’s also GMO-free.

To see more images of lysozyme crystals, check out Dr. Kalju Kahn’s gallery created by students at UCSB.

Paperview: Evaluation of the protection of a broad-spectrum SPF50+ sunscreen against DNA damage

Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) are a form of DNA damage that is caused by UV exposure. CPDs interfere with base pairing during DNA replication – which can lead to mutations and cancer.

UVB radiation is directly absorbed by DNA. The energy causes changes in the bonding of pyrimidine structures found in DNA leading to CPDs and pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproducts.

UVA on the other hand is poorly absorbed by DNA, but was also found to cause CPD formation in human skin. CPDs were found to remain longer in the skin when there was UVA exposure, leading to speculation that UVA may also suppress a repair mechanism.

Our cells do have DNA repair capabilities, where damaged DNA is excised and replaced – but these processes can be overwhelmed by an accumulation of damage.

Experiments have measured the amount of CPD formation in human skin when exposed to UVB. One study found that CPDs were formed even when there was no visible sunburn (0.5 sunburn dose). They also found CPDs in both the epidermis and dermis and these levels were elevated for about 10 days as the skin sloughed off.

These two images from the paper show (A) skin that was not exposed to UVB and (B) skin that was exposed to UVB. The brown staining of the cells indicates presence of CPDs.

The amount of CPDs found in both the epidermis and dermis increased as UVB exposure increased.

A recent experiment performed by Pierre Fabre (manufacturers of Avène) looked at the effect sunscreen had on the  formation of CPDs in human skin after UV exposure.

14 volunteers applied a sunscreen to their forearm and were exposed to UVB and UVA on skin protected by the sunscreen and also on unprotected skin. The area covered in sunscreen received 15 times the dose of UV to cause sunburn, whereas the unprotected skin received 2 times the dose.

After this exposure, their skin was blistered by vacuum and the contents of the blister were examined for CPDs using two different methods: immunostaining and spectrometry (HPLC-MS).

They found that the unprotected skin after exposure to UV had an elevated ratio of CPDs to normal DNA bases (90 CPD to 106 DNA bases). In comparison, the skin protected with the sunscreen had an amount of CPDs similar to unexposed skin and statistically significantly less than the unprotected skin (P < 0.001) – even though the area received more UV exposure. The CPD to normal DNA base ratio was not reported for the sunscreen protected and unexposed skin.

The sunscreen was not named, but it is SPF 50+, broad spectrum, and contained; Tinosorb M and S, Iscotrizinol, Avobenzone, and the antioxidant bis-ethylhexyl-hydroxydimethoxy benzylmalonate.

Preventing the formation of CPDs from reducing UV exposure is the most well-researched option, but there are other newer methods that are emerging – some of which are already available on the market.

Photolyase is a DNA repair enzyme that can be activated by the absorption of a photon and transfer an electron to the CPD, this can separate the CPD back into two normal pyrimidine bases – with the right timing. In humans, the photolyase enzyme no longer works, but there is some evidence that topical application of photolyase may reduce the formation of CPDs. An experiment where photolyase encapsulated in liposomes combined with light exposure was applied to human skin reduced the formation of CPDs by 40%-45% after exposure to UVB.

You can watch a lecture given by Aziz Sanzar about photolyase and DNA repair below. He won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2015 for his work along with his colleagues Tomas Lindahl and Paul Modrich.

S.K. Katiyar, M.S. Matsui, H. Mukhtar, Kinetics of UV light–induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in human skin in vivo: An immunohistochemical analysis of both epidermis and dermis, Photochemistry and Photobiology (2002), DOI: 10.1562/0031-8655(2000)0720788KOULIC2.0.CO2
J. Gwendal, T. Douki, J. Le Digabel, et al, Evaluation of the protection of a broad-spectrum SPF50+ sunscreen against DNA damage, Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology (2018), DOI: 10.1016/j.jaad.2018.05.570

Urban particulate matter in air pollution penetrates into the barrier-disrupted skin and produces ROS-dependent cutaneous inflammatory response in vivo

Anti-pollution or anti-particulate matter has become a huge buzzword in cosmetics. Pollution and particulate matter have been linked to many negative health effects (mainly cardiovascular) and while the link to skin health and acceleration of ageing are logical…does the data support it?

There have a been a few correlational studies that have shown that people living in areas with higher levels of pollution exhibit more signs of oxidative stress in skin lipids and some have even correlated it with increased wrinkling. But what’s the mechanism and can particulate matter even penetrate the skin?

A group of researchers from Seoul used an in vivo mouse and in vitro keratinocyte model to study this.

First was the collection of particulate matter from the air. To do this they set up a vinyl tarp on a rooftop near a busy intersection to collect dust. The particulate matter was then purified and separated to be used in the experiment. The majority of the particles ranged from 200 to 300 nm. Particulates found included: Naphthalene, biphenyl, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, and 28 others identified.

For the in vitro portion of the experiment, cell cultures of human primary keratinocytes were performed with varying concentrations of the particulate matter. The cells absorbed the particulate matter, and the researchers found a concentration-dependent increase of inflammatory cytokine IL-8 and collagenase MMP-1. They also found that the addition of an antioxidant, n-acetyl cysteine, was able to suppress this effect.

In the in vivo portion of the experiment, the researchers used mice that did not produce melanin and divided them into two skin conditions: One with their skin intact, and another with barrier-damaged skin. To damage the skin barrier they stripped the skin 10 times with tape to remove layers of the stratum corneum. The particulate matter was applied 10 times over 2 weeks and included a skin penetration enhancer (DMSO).

While the in vitro results may be “scary”, the in vivo results were milder. Particulate matter was shown to penetrate into the intercellular space of the barrier-disrupted mice, but not the intact mice. Particulate matter was found in hair follicles of both, but there was no epidermal penetration of the particulate matter in the intact mice.

The researchers did find an increase in inflammation in the particulate matter treated skin compared to skin not exposed- whether or not the sin was intact or tape-stripped. However, the inflammation was much more severe in the tape-stripped group. The researchers also showed that intradermal n-acetyl cysteine was able to ameliorate the increase in inflammation caused by particulate matter, but they did not perform this portion of the experiment on the intact mice. It’s likely this same treatment will have a similar effect in the intact mice, but it is unknown.

The researchers also point out some issues with their own experiment: The concentration of particulate matter may not reflect the amount that a person would be exposed to and that their sampling of particulate matter had a high concentration of sulfur which may be unique to their location. It’s also important to remember that mice are not humans, and we may react differently.

While it’s likely that the addition of anti-inflammatories and antioxidants may help attenuate some of the potential inflammation caused by pollution and particulate matter, it’s unknown which chemicals and what combinations are most effective for humans. There’s also no standard measurement to gauge a protective effect so it is impossible to compare one product to another. Again, we see another case of the marketing being ahead of the science.

Source: Jin Seon-Pil, Li Zhenyu, Choi Eun Kyung, Lee Serah,
Kim Yoen Kyung, Seo Eun Young, Chung Jin Ho, Cho Soyun.Urban particulate
matter in air pollution penetrates into the barrier-disrupted skin and produces ROSdependent
cutaneous inflammatory response in vivo.Journal of Dermatological Science
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdermsci.2018.04.015